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63.Q: What is ar-riddah and to how many category is it divided?


A: Ar-riddah is to interrupt al-’Islam. Ar-riddah is divided into three categories. Such classification [was given] by an-Nawawiyy and other [^ulama’] from among the Shafi^iyyah, Hanafiyyah and other schools [of Islamic Law]. [It’s categories are]: Beliefs, doings and sayings.


64.Q: State a proof from al-hadith that it is not a condition for one to fall in al-kufr that the person knows the judgment.

A: The prophet, salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: A person may utter a word that he thinks harmless, but it results in his falling in Hellfire [the depth of ] 70 years [in travel]. That is, the distance covered in descending 70 years in Hellfire. This is the bottom of Hellfire (Jahannam) and it is only inhabited by the kuffar (non-Muslims, blasphemers). This hadith was narrated by at-Tirmidhiyy who classified it as hassan [i.e., authentic]. A hadith related by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim has a similar meaning. It says: The slave may utter a word that he thinks not haram, but it results in his falling in Hellfire [a deep distance] longer than that between the east and west. Al-hafidh Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Bariyy when interpreting the aforementioned hadith: This includes what infers belittling Allah or His Islamic Laws. Those two hadith are a proof that it is not a condition for a person to commit kufr that he knows the judgment, feels delighted, or believes the meaning of the uttered [blasphemous] word. [Such a condition was] falsely stated as such in the book of “Fiqh as-Sunnah”. The book of “Fiqh as-Sunnah” has stipulated that this is a condition, but such a condition is unfounded.


65.Q: Give a proof from al-Qur’an that belittling Allah or his messenger is kufr.

A: Allah ta^ala said: The ayah

(وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّمَا كُنَّا نَخُوضُ وَنَلْعَبُ قُلْ أَبِاللهِ وَءايَاتِهِ وَرَسُولِهِ كُنتُمْ تَسْتَهْزِؤُونَ)

that means: If they [the kuffar] were questioned they would say we were just talking and joking. Say to them: Is it Allah, his ayat and messenger you were belittling!! Do not give any excuse. You committed kufr after you had the belief (at-Tawbah 65-66).


66.Q: Give the name of one [Islamic reference] from those who conveyed the consensus about charging with kufr the person who cusses Allah.

A: Al-’imam al-qadi ^Iyad al-Yahsubiyy in his book “ash-Shifa” said: “There is no disagreement [among the Muslims] that a person from the Muslims who cusses Allah is kafir and deserves to be persecuted [by the Muslim ruler].”


67.Q: Give the name of one [Islamic reference] from those who conveyed the consensus about charging with kufr the person who uttered a blasphemous word or did a blasphemous action.

A: Taj ad-Din as-Subkiyy said in his book “Muqadimat at-Tabaqat”: “There is no disagreement among al-’Ash^ariyy and his companions, say rather among all the Muslims, that the person who utters a saying of kufr or does the doings of al-kuffar is a kafir about Allah al-^Adhim. Furthermore, he will dwell eternally in Hellfire, even though his heart knows [the truth]. However, knowledge does not benefit him with [his] stubbornness and does not protect him [from becoming kafir]. No two Muslims disagree about that [judgment].”


68.Q: What is the judgment about the person who denies what is [apparently] known by necessity from the Religion?

A: The person who denies something that is apparently known, which the ^ulama’ and common Muslim equally know, commits kufr. One is not excused unless he is a new Muslims or has been raised in a desert away from the ^ulama’ and does not know that this matter is from al-’Islam. Also, the matter in concern must not be related to clearing Allah of the partner and place [and the prophet from non-befitting attributes].


69.Q: To how many category did the ^ulama’ classified the expressions and explain the meaning of that?

A: Al-^ulama’ classified the expressions into two categories: adh-dhahir and as-sarih. Adh-dhahir has according to language two meanings or more, but is more used in one of these meanings [than the others]. When a person utters an expression that is dhahir, he is not charged with kufr; unless, one knows about what the person meant by that saying.

On the other hand, as-sarih does not have any other explanation. The one who utters a sarih statement which is kufr, commits kufr. He is not asked about what he meant and no explanation can be accepted from him; unless, he does not know the meaning of this sarih saying, because he may think that its meaning is other than what he said. In this case, this saying with regards to him does not carry the standing of as-sarih.


70.Q: What is incumbent upon the one who committed ar-riddah?

A: It is incumbent upon the one who committed ar-riddah to go back immediately to al-’Islam by uttering the two professions. He has also to quit what caused ar-riddah, regret and determine not to commit it or its similar.


71.Q: If the apostate does not leave out his/her kufr, what would the caliph do to him/her?

A: If the apostate does not leave out his kufr by ash-Shahadah, he/she has to be asked to repent. That is, he/she will be asked to come back to al-’Islam [immediately and will be asked repeatedly to do that] during [a period not more than] three days. This is an obligation on the caliph or his representative. The Muslim ruler [i.e., caliph or his representative] will not accept from the apostate other than al-’Islam; otherwise, the Muslim ruler has to necessarily persecute the apostate if that person does not become a Muslim. This is done in compliance with the saying of the prophet, salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam: Kill whoever leaves al-’Islam (narrated by al-Bukhariyy).


72.Q: State some of the judgments which pertain to ar-riddah.

A: Some of the judgments that pertain to ar-riddah are that the murtadd’s (apostate’s) fasting is invalidated and so are his tayammum. [That also applies to the] marriage before the [first] sexual intercourse. If the apostate returns to al-’Islam before the ^iddah is over , one’s spouse may come back to that person. In this case, it is not required to renew the marriage contract [if the marriage contract was not done according to the Hanafi school].

Moreover, the apostate marriage contract is not valid with a Muslim, Jew, Christian or other ones. It is haram to eat from the animal the apostate’s slaughters. The apostate does not inherit and the apostate’s wealth is not inherited. It is not permissible to pray [the janazah prayer] for the apostate. It is not an obligation to wash and shroud that person. In addition, it is not permissible to bury the apostate in the Muslims’ cemeteries and the apostate’s money is fay’. That is, the money will be spent on Islamic matters.


73.Q: Speak about performing the obligations and who is incumbent to do that?

A: Each mukallaf is obligated to perform all what Allah made incumbent upon him. This includes, praying, fasting, paying zakah, performing hajj and other things. One has to perform them according to what Allah ordered the person to do. This means, one has to fulfill the obligation requisites and pre-requisites and avoid its invalidations.

Hence, it is not enough to just perform the actions of worship [solely]. The prophet, salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: From the many people who stand up [for praying] there is the one who acquire from his standing up staying up only. Also, from the many people who fast there is the one who acquire from his fasting hunger and thirst only (narrated by Ibn Hibban).


74.Q: What is the obligation towards the person who leaves out some of the obligations?

A: If one sees another leaving out any of what Allah made obligatory or performing it incorrectly, one must order that person to perform them correctly. One is also obligated to force that person to do so, if one is able. Otherwise, one has to denounce that negligence or mis-performance in one’s heart when one cannot force or order its change. This the least that is required if one was unable [to change the haram by hand or by the tongue].


75.Q: Speak about avoiding the haram matters.

A: It is obligatory upon the mukallaf to leave out all the haram matters, forbid whoever commits them, and force its committer not to commit them, if able. Otherwise, one must reject that action in one’s own heart. It is required that when one forbids the haram that one’s action does not lead to another haram that is bigger in degree than the first haram. Otherwise, such an action is not permissible, because it implies leaving out the corrupt matter in favor of inducing a more corrupt matter.

The prophet, salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: Whoever sees [or knows about] a haram, then let him change it by his hand. If one is unable, [let him change it] by his tongue, and if one is unable, then [let it be changed] by his tongue. This is the least that is required if one was unable (ad^af al-’iman) (narrated by Muslim).


76.Q: What is al-haram and what is al-wajib?

A: Al-haram which Allah obligated his slaves to avoid is that which Allah deemed punishment in the Hereafter for performing it and deemed reward for avoiding it. Its opposite is al-wajib. [That is, al-wajib which Allah obligated his slaves to fulfill is what Allah deemed reward for performing it and deemed punishment in the Hereafter for committing it.]


77.Q: Give some examples about blasphemous beliefs.

A: The one who believes in a religion other than al-’Islam, or did not believe in an ayah of al-Qur’an or did not believe in a prophet whose prophethood is known in the religion by necessity [commits blasphemy in belief]. Similarly, the one who deems halal a matter that is commonly known among the Muslims to be haram or deems haram a matter that is commonly known among the Muslims to be halal [commits blasphemy in belief]. Likewise, the one who likens Allah to the creations, or attributes a place or direction to Allah commits blasphemy in belief.



78.Q: Give some examples about blasphemous actions.

A: The one who throws al-mushaf in dirt, or make sujud to an idol or the sun, or does any action on which the Muslims have agreed that it is not done by other than a kafir is a blasphemer by doing a blasphemous action.


79.Q: Give some examples about blasphemous sayings.

A: The one who reviles Allah, or the prophet, or the Islamic religion, or al-Ka^bah [is a kafir by saying a blasphemous saying]. The one who belittles Paradise, or the Threat of Allah when knowing that it is revealed by Allah subhanah [is a kafir by saying a blasphemous saying]. Similarly, the one who belittles as-Salah or al-Hajj is a kafir by saying a blasphemous saying.

The rule is: Any belief, action, or saying which belittles Allah, His angels, His messengers, His Threat, His Promise, or the well known practices of His Religion [which Allah ordered to follow, i.e., al-’Islam] is blasphemy. Hence, the human being must exercise caution to the utmost of his effort to avoid that blasphemy.


80.Q: Mention a saying of a ^alim from the respected ^ulama’ who showed that ar-riddah is classified into three categories: Convictions, doings and sayings.

A: Al-’imam an-Nawawiyy mentioned that in his book “al-Minhaj”, “Rawdat at-Talibin” and other books. He said in “al-Minhaj”: “Ar-riddah is to interrupt al-’Islam by intending, or saying or doing, whether the person says that out of belittling, stubbornness or believing in it.”


  Allah Knows Best