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PM types

A functional organization is one where the functional managers have all the power. Here's an example: most software companies have the programmers reporting to a development manager, who is responsible for hiring/firing, reviews, salaries, and also assigning work to the developers. There's often someone with the title "project manager", but this person really only takes down notes at status meetings and does bookkeeping -- but has no actual authority to plan projects, assign work or manage changes. We call that role a project expeditor, and the person filling that role usually reports directly to the functional manager. Any power he or she has is explicitly delegated. All project management decisions need to be cleared with the funtional manager, and the only "project management" tasks are simple administrative work. From the perspective of the PMP exam, this is the least effective kind of organization.

A matrix organization is one where the team reports to a functional manager, but there is also a project manager who has authority to manage the project and lead the team. There are three kinds of matrix organizations:

- In a weak matrix, the project manager is usually a part-time role. In many cases, the project manager is really a project coordinator, which is more of an administrative role (like the project expeditor) but does have some limited authority over the project and usually reports to a higher-level manager. The budget is controlled by the functional manager, and all major project decisions must be cleared with the functional manager.

- In a balanced matrix, the project manager is a full-time role with more authority. Project decisions and budget responsibilities are shared between the functional manager and the project manager -- the project manager needs to clear decisions with the functional manager, but the functional manager also needs to clear decisions with the project manager.

- In a strong matrix, the project manager has more authority over the project than the functional manager. The functional manager's role is more concerned with making sure the team members' professional development and organizational needs are met, while the project manager makes the bulk of the project-related decisions and generally doesn't need to get the functional manager's approval for them. Of the three matrix organizations, this is the most desirable one.

Finally, a projectized organization is one where the project manager has full authority, and if there is a functional manager he has very limited authority. Many consulting companies and construction companies are set up like this, where a team is put together specifically for one contract or job, reports to the project manager for the duration of the project, and then the team is dissolved (and, when the team members are contracted individually, they are no longer part of the organization). The project manager has complete authority to assign work to the team, work with the budget, manage changes, and carry out all project management processes.

In a matrix organization, project charters are very important -- they're the documents that actually give the project manager authority to assign work to the team. A charter is necessary because the team doesn't report directly to the project manager, so a senior manager or sponsor has to explicitly grant that authority.

You may get questions about which type of organization provides the project manager with the most or least authority. The project manager has the least authority in a functional organization, then a little more in a weak matrix, then balanced matrix, strong matrix. The project manager has the most authority in a projectized organization.

When you're taking the PMP exam, if a question asks about a project manager's role in a project but doesn't specify a specific type of organization, assume it's talking about a strong matrix organization. That means you can assume that there is a functional manager, but that the project manager has authority to make decisions and control the budget.
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بـَلَغَ العُلَى بِكَمالهِ * كَشَفَ الدُجَى بِجَمالِهِ
حَسُنَت جَميعُ خِصالِهِ * صَلُّوا عَلَيه وءالِه
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اللهم الطف بنا فيما جرت به المقادير


اللهم أعني على ما ينجيني مم خوفتني منه وارزقني شوق الصالحين إلى ماشوقتهم إليه.
اللهم لا تحجبني بدنياي عنك واجعل بغيتي من الدنيا بغية الراكب المـُجِدِّ للآخرة واجعل همومي هماً واحداً هو لقائك يا أرحم الراحمين.
اللهم يا مُغَيـَّرَ الحال والأحوال غيـِّر حالنا إلى أحسن حال اللهم أنت المقصود بكل حال والمشار إليه بكل معنى .
 اللهم إني سلَّمت إليك مقاليد أمري فاقبلني وارحمني .
اللهم يامن يتودد إلى من عصاه فكيف بمن يتولاه ويناديه .
اللهم إن تعذبنا فكثيراً عصيناك وإن تغفر لنا ففقراء إلى رحمتك.
اللهم إن كنا عصيناك بجهل فقد دعوناك بعقل .

اللهم إنا نسألك علم الخائفين وإنابة المخبتين وإخلاص الموقنين وشكر الصابرين وتوبة الصادقين .
اللهم إنا نسألك لساناً رطباً بذكرك وقلباً منعماً بشكرك وبدناً هيناً ليناً بطاعتكَ .
اللهم اجعلنا من جندك فإن جندك هم الغالبون
واجعلنا من حزبك فإن حزبك هم المفلحون
واجعلنا من أوليائك فإن أوليائك لا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون.
اللهم بذمة الإسلام أتوسل إليك  وبحرمة القرآن اعتمد عليك وبمحمد صلى الله عليه وسلم أستشفع لديك.

سبحان المنفس عن كل مكروب ومديون
سبحان المخَلِّص لكل مسجون
سبحان المفَرِّج عن كل محزون
سبحان العالم بكل مكنون
سبحان مـُجري الماء في البحر والعيون
سبحان من أمره إذا أراد شيئاً أن يقول له كن فيكون
يا مُفَرِّجاً فَرِّجْ يا مُفَرِّجاً فَرِّجْ يا مُفَرِّجاً فَرِّجْ
سبحان الذي بيده ملكوت كل شيء وإليه ترجعون يا الله يا حميد يا مجيد .
يامن عنده مرادي يا ناصر كل معين
إياك نعبد وإياك نستعين.

الحمد لله الذي لا ينسى من ذَكَرَهُ ولا يضيع من شكره
الحمد لله الذي لا يـُخَيِّبُ من قصده
الحمد لله من وثق به لا يكله إلى غيره
الحمد لله الذي يجزي بالإحسان إحساناً وبالصبر نجاةً وغفراناً.
الحمد لله الذي هو رجاءنا حين تسوء الظنون بأعمالنا.
الحمد لله الذي هو ثقتنا حين تنقطع الحيل عنا.
الحمد لله الذي تواضع كل شيء لعظمته
وذلَّ كُلُّ شيءٍ لعزته وخضع كُلُّ شيءٍ لملكه
وأظهر كل شيء بحكمته وتصاغر كل شيء لكبريائه
الحمد لله الذي بعزته وجلاله تتم الصالحات
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قال الإمام البوصيري في قصيدته المشهورة البردة في مدح النبي صلّى الله عليه و سلّم

The Imam Al-BuSuwriyy said in his famous poem Al-Burdah in praising the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam

ظلمت سنة من أحيا الظلام إلى
أن اشتكت قدماه الضر من ورم

I have done injustice to the path of the one who prayed at night
Until his feet complained of pain and swelling

وشدَّ من سغب أحشاءه وطوى
تحت الحجارة كشحاً مترف الأدم

While he bound up his insides against the extremity of his hunger
Hiding his delicate skin beneath the stone tied round his waist

وراودته الجبال الشم من ذهبٍ
عن نفسه فأراها أيما شمم

The high mountains of gold sought to entice him
But he showed them in return the true meaning of elevation

محمد سيد الكونين والثقليـن
والفريقين من عرب ومن عجم

Muhammad is the master of the two worlds, master of jinn and men
And master of the two groups, Arabs and non-Arabs

نبينا الآمرُ الناهي فلا أحدٌ
أبر في قولِ لا منه ولا نعـم

Our Prophet, who commands the good and forbids the wrong
There is no one truer to his word, whether it be 'yes' or 'no'

هو الحبيب الذي ترجى شفاعته
لكل هولٍ من الأهوال مقتحم

He is the beloved one, whose intercession is hoped for
Against all the terrifying things that take us by storm

دعا إلى الله فالمستمسكون به
مستمسكون بحبلٍ غير منفصم

He has called the people to Allah, so those who cling to him
Are clinging to a rope which will never break
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Indeed, Allah speaks the truth. Indeed Allah speaks the truth, the One who is unique in His majesty by the perfection of His beautiful attributes, glorified and exalted.

He who sent down the clear the Qur’an to His servant ﷺ (peace be upon him) in order to make him a warner to the worlds; He who sent His noble messenger to the two mighty races of jinn and mankind to give glad tidings and to warn; and we are to this (truth) from among those who bear witness.

O Allah, guide us along with those whom You have guided aright; and grant us well-being along with those whom You have granted well-being; and protect us with those whom You have protected. Bless for us all that You have given us; and save us and keep away from us any evil that You have decreed. O Allah, save us and keep away from us any evil that You have decreed.

O Allah, save us and keep away from us any evil that You have decreed, for verily You decree in truth, and none can decree over You. And none is abased whom You support, and none is honored whom You oppose. Glorified are You, our Lord, Exalted. To You, O Allah, all praise is due for what You have decreed, and to You, O Allah, is due all thanks for Your blessings and bounty. We seek forgiveness from (You) Allah, and we repent to You. We seek forgiveness from Allah, and we repent to You.

We seek forgiveness from You, O Allah, for every sin and every misstep (we have taken), and we turn to You in repentance. We believe in You and rely on You. You are Free of Needs (al-Ghaniyy), and we are poor and need You. You are the Powerful al-Qawiyy), and we are weak and vulnerable before You.

You are Free of Needs (al-Ghaniyy), and we are poor and bereft before You.  You are the Powerful (al-Qawiyy), and we are weak and vulnerable before You.

You are Free of Needs (al-Ghaniyy), and we are poor and bereft before You.  You are the Powerful (al-Qawiyy), and we are weak and vulnerable before You.

O Allah – You who support those who are cut off (from hope) – support us.

O Allah, gift us with righteous action from You that will bring us closer to Your acceptance.

O Allah, conceal (our faults) and protect us while we are on Earth, and when we are beneath the Earth, and on the Day when our deeds are presented to You.  [Repeated three times]

O Allah, beautify our standing before You.

O Allah, do not let us down on the Day we are presented before You to be judged. [Repeated three times]

O Allah, accept our prayers, our fasting, our standing in worship, our bowing and our prostration.

O Allah, accept our prayers.  O Allah, accept our fasting.  O Allah, accept our standing in worship.  O Allah, accept our bowing.  O Allah, accept our prostration. [Repeated three times]

O Allah, make us among those who are freed from the Fire this Ramadan. [Repeated three times]

O Allah, save us from the Fire. O Allah, save us from the Fire. O Allah, save us from the Fire. O Allah, protect us from the shame and disgrace of the Fire. O Allah, protect us from any deed that draws us closer to the Fire. O Allah, enter us into Paradise with the righteous, by Your mercy, O You Who is Most Noble (al-`Azeez), Oft-Forgiving (al-Ghaffar).

O Allah, make us, our Lord, in this month of ours, on this day of ours, on this very night, from those who are freed from the Fire, and make us from those who are accepted by You, the successful.

… By Your mercy, O Most Merciful of those who show mercy…

By Your mercy, O Most Merciful of those who show mercy…

By Your mercy, O Allah…

O ALLAH (Asking Allah by his 99 names).

O Allah… O Allah… O Allah…

O You Whom there is absolutely nothing like you, you are Attributed with Hearing and Seeing, O Allah.

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This is the video of the du^a' and follows the translation:

To download the original MP3 Audio click: http://alsunna.org/audio/duaa_muhammad_jibril.mp3

Watch video with pictures: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHaVwHoY41U

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To You, O Allah, all praise is due for what You have decreed, and to You, O Allah, is due all thanks for Your blessings and bounty. We seek forgiveness from (You) Allah, and we repent to You. We seek forgiveness from Allah, and we repent to You.
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It's sunnah to say Duaa Qunoot in the last Rak^ah of Fajr prayer after ruku^, and in times of calamaties.

The Du^a' is:
اللهم اهدني فيمن هديت وعافني فيمن عافيت وتولني فيمن توليت وبارك لي فيما أعطيت وقِني واصرف عني شر ما قضيت إنك تقضي ولا يُقضى عليك وإنه لا يذل من واليت تباركت ربنا وتعاليت

Translation: O Allah, guide us along with those whom You have guided aright; and grant us well-being along with those whom You have granted well-being; and protect us with those whom You have protected. Bless for us all that You have given us; and save us and keep away from us any evil that You have decreed, for verily You decree in truth, and none can decree over You. And none is abased whom You support, and none is honored whom You oppose. Glorified are You, our Lord, Exalted.
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اللهم اهدني فيمن هديت وعافني فيمن عافيت وتولني فيمن توليت وبارك لي فيما أعطيت وقِني واصرف عني شر ما قضيت إنك تقضي ولا يُقضى عليك وإنه لا يذل من واليت تباركت ربنا وتعاليت.


شرح معاني كلمات دعاء القنوت
اللهم اهدني فيمن هديت معناه : يارب اجعلني من المهتدين الذين شئت لهم الهداية
وعافني فيمن عافيت معناه : أي اجعلني من الذين رزقتهم العافية
وتولني فيمن توليت معناه : أي اجعلني من الذين توليتهم بالحفظ
وقني شر ما قضيت معناه : معناه جنبني الشر الذي أنت تخلقه وليس معناه ما شئت أن يكون علي من الشر غيّر مشيئتك واصرفه عني لأن مشيئة الله لا تتغير قال صلى الله عليه وسلم :[ماشاء الله كان وما لم يشأ لم يكن. والتغير أقوى علامات الحدوث فلا يجوز على الله وأما قوله تعالى : كلَّ يوم هو في شأن فليس معناه أن مشيئة الله تتغير إنما معناه كما قال الرسول : يكشف كربا ويغفر ذنبا ويرفع قوما ويضع ءاخرين أي كل يوم يغير في خلقه مايشاء .
إنك تقضي ولا يقضى عليك معناه : أنت يارب تخلق ما شئت أن يكون ومشيئتك شاملة لكل شئ ولامشيئة للعباد إلا ما شئت لهم ومشيئتك غلبت كل المشيئات.
إنه لا يذل من واليت معناه : أي من شئت له أن يكون عزيزا وأيدته بنصرك لا يستطيع أحد أن يذله
ولا يعز من عاديت معناه : من عاديته يا رب لا يكون عزيزا
تباركت ربنا وتعاليت معناه :دام فضلك يارب وأنت منزه عن مشابهة الخلق وليس معنى العلو في حق الله علو الجهة والمكان لأن هذا من صفات الخلق ولا يجوز على الخالق. أنت متعالٍ منزه عن مشابهة الخلق فلا تصف بالمكان ولا الجهة ولا الجلوس ولا القعود ولا الشكل ولا الهيئة ولا الصورة ولا الأعضاء ولا الجهل ولا العجز ولا الحركة ولا السكون ولا الانفعال.
ولك الحمد على ما قضيت معناه: نحمدك يارب على مشيئتك وقضائك ونحن راضون عن الله في تقديره الخير والشر لا عن العبد الذي يفعل الشر لن العبد منهىّ عنه.
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Consider taking a course as Project Management Professional (PMI-PMP)
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