بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

PREFACE

 

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, Who honored the nation of Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, with the Glorious Quran and protected it from perversion. We humbly ask Allah to raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, whom Allah sent to call the people and the jinn to the Correct Path.  We ask Allah to raise the rank of the kind Al [1] and Companions of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, and to protect his nation from what he fears for them.

           

The Science of Tafsir (^Ilm at-Tafsir), which is the knowledge of the interpretation of the Quran, is an honorable knowledge with which one is enabled to comprehend the precious meanings of the Glorious Quran.  The Science of Tafsir leads to the proper deduction of the religious judgments contained in the Quran and to the benefit of taking lessons from the stories narrated therein.  Moreover, this science explains the reasons behind the revelation of its verses (ayahs), addresses subjects such as whether the verses were revealed in Makkah (Makkiyyan) or in al-Madinah (Madiniyyan), whether they have one clear meaning (muhkam) or have more than one meaning and require a proper deduction of an appropriate meaning (mutashabih), abrogating (nasikh) or abrogated (mansukh), specific (khas) or general (^am), and whether they contain a threat of castigation (wa^id) or a promise of reward (wa^d), and many other benefits.

           

The honor of the Science of Tafsir is grand and the reward of spreading it is magnificent. We have attempted to translate into the English language the interpretation of the Thirtieth (30th) part of the Quran (Juz ^Amma) and the Opening Chapter (Surah al-Fatihah).  We relied in our endeavor on precious books of interpretation in the Arabic language. One of which is Al-Bahr Al-Muhit, authored by Ibn Hayyan Al-Andalusiyy. Another text is one of the most competent and reliable interpretation that was compiled by the Research Division of the Association of Islamic Charitable Projects and is entitled AD-DURR AL-MASUN FI TAFSIR JUZ ^AMMA YATASALUN.

           

We named this book " The Jeweled Interpretation of the Thirtieth Part of the Glorious Qur'an (Juz' ^Amma) and Surah al-Fatihah."

 

We ask Allah to make our endeavor sincere and acceptable, of widespread benefit, and a reason for our expeditious passage over Assirat [2]and salvation in the Hereafter.


 

INTRODUCTION

 

            It is Islamically unlawful to translate the ayahs of the Quran word for word into other languages.  Allah said:  {وَكَذَلِكَ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ قُرْءَانًا عَرَبِيًّا} (Surah Taha, 113).  This ayah means:  [We have revealed the Quran in the Arabic language.]  In another ayah, Allah informed us that the Quran was revealed in an explicit Arabic mother tongue. This meaning is explicit in the saying of Allah{بِلِسَانٍ عَرَبِيٍّ مُبِينٍ} (Surah ash-Shu^ara, 195).  Moreover, the richness contained in the vocabulary of the Arabic language is non-existent in other languages.  For instance, the Arabic word qur' ( (قُرءmay refer to the menstrual period and/or to the cleanliness period of the woman.

 

            Allah revealed many Holy Books to His Prophets.  Shaykh Shamsud-Din ar-Ramliyy mentioned in his book, Nihayat Al-Muhtaj Fi Sharhil-Minhaj, that these Books numbered one hundred and four (104).  Fifty (50) of these were revealed to Prophet Shith (Seth), thirty (30) to Prophet Idris (Enoch), ten (10) to Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), and ten (10), other than the Torah, to Prophet Musa (Moses).  The last four (4) revealed Holy Books were:

 

1.      The Torah, revealed in the Hebrew language to Prophet Musa (Moses)

2.      The Zabur, revealed in the Hebrew language to Prophet Dawud (David)

3.      The Injil, revealed in the Syriac language to Prophet ^Isa (Jesus)

4.      The Quran, revealed in the Arabic language to Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.

 

Of these books, the Quran is the only Holy Book which remains intact and unchanged to this day.  It is the lasting miracle revealed to Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, which Allah protected from being perverted.

 

The complaints of non-Arabic speaking Muslims at large emanate mainly from the absence of reliable interpretations of the Quran in their own respective mother tongues.  Sadly, most of the available translations are unsatisfactory and dangerous, because the methodologies used in producing these translations deviate from what is permissible under the rules of the Religion. 

 

Because the Quran was specifically revealed in the Arabic language does not mean it is meant only for Arabic speaking people to read and understand.  On the contrary, Islam, the religion of all the prophets, is pronounced the only true religion for all people[3]; therefore its terms and teachings must also be attainable by non-Arabic speaking people.  The religious prohibition is in translating the verses of the Quran word for word and claiming these are the expressions revealed by Allah to Prophet Muhammad , sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.  What is permissible, however, is to explain the meanings of the verses of the Qur'an in other languages.

 

Interpreting the meanings of the Qur'an require qualified scholars who have the necessary scholastic tools. Many renowned scholars of interpretation have authored precious books. Ibn Hayyan Al-Andalusiyy, for example, authored Al-Bahr Al-Muhit, a text that Muslim scholars hold as highly reputable and credible. Translating similar works constitutes a proper methodology of spreading the meanings of the Glorious Qur'an into other languages.

 

The overall layout of this book consists of giving a general interpretation of the meanings of each individual verse (ayah) in table form, with the English interpretation in the left column and the corresponding verse in Arabic in the right column.  A more detailed interpretation of each verse follows the table format in the body of the book.  Transliterated words are italicized and the following transliteration system has been adopted for this work:

 


 

 

Transliteration System

English

Arabic

 

English

Arabic

ء

 

T

ط

B

ب

 

DH

ظ

T

ت

 

^

ع

TH

ث

 

GH

غ

J

ج

 

F

ف

H

ح

 

Q

ق

KH

خ

 

K

ك

D

د

 

L

ل

DH

ذ

 

M

م

R

ر

 

N

ن

Z

ز

 

H

ه

S

س

 

W

و

SH

ش

 

Y

ي

S

ص

 

A

أ

D

ض

 

A

ءا

 

To represent the fathah

a after the letter

 

To represent the dammah

u after the letter

 

To represent the kasrah

i after the letter

 

To represent the mad by an alif

a after the letter

 

To represent the mad by a waw

u after the letter

 

To represent the mad by a ya

i after the letter

 

To represent the shaddah

the letter is doubled

 

 


THE ISTI^ADHAH                                                                                  الاستعاذة

 

أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

(A^udhu billahi minash-shaytanir-rajim)

(I seek Allahs protection from the harm of the deprived and expelled Devil.)

 

The meaning of the isti^adhah is:  I seek the protection of Allah to preserve me against the harm of Satan, who is a deviant and transgressing blasphemer among the jinn.

 

By scholarly consensus, the isti^adhah, or seeking Allahs protection from the devil, is not a part of the Quran.  However, the saying of most of the scholars (jumhur) is that it is liked for one to begin with the isti^adhah before starting to recite the Quran.  It was mentioned by some that one says the isti^adhah after finishing reciting the Quran relying on the saying of Allah in Surah an-Nahl, 98:

{فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْءَانَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ}

However, the jumhur said that the meaning of this ayah is:  [If you want to recite the Quran start with the isti^adhah].  The same technique is used in the hadith of the Prophet , sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, narrated by al-Humaydiyy and at-Tabaraniyy:  << إذا أكلت فسم الله >> which means:  <<If you want to eat, start by mentioning the name of Allah.>>

 

Ar-rajim (الرجيم) means the one who is deprived from any goodness, or the one who is expelled and degraded.

 

 


SURAH AL-FATIHAH                                                               سورة الفاتحة

Makkiyyan.

Comprised of seven (7) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

1. I start with the name of Allah, Who is ar-Rahman and ar-Rahim.

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ(1)

 

2. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds,

 

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ(2)

 

3. Who is ar-Rahman and ar-Rahim,

 

الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ(3)

 

4. The Owner of the Day of Judgment.

 

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ(4)

 

5. We worship You and seek Your aid.

 

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ(5)

 

6. Keep us guided on the Straight Path,

 

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ(6)

 

7. The path of those on whom You have bestowed the Correct Religion; The path of those whose share is not punishment, and the path of those who are not astray.

 

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا الضَّآلِّينَ(7)

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

1.  بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ} {                       

          This verse (ayah) is called 'the basmalah.'  According to Imam ash-Shafi^iyy the basmalah is one of the verses (ayahs) of the Fatihah without which the prayer is invalid.  Imam Malik and Imam Abu Hanifah do not consider the basmalah to be a verse (ayah) of the Fatihah.  Every chapter (surah) of the Quran starts with the basmalah except for one, Surah Baraah.  Moreover, following the methodology of the Qur'an, it became the habit of the salaf [4]  and the khalaf[5]  to start their written works with the basmalah

          It is recommended (sunnah) and not obligatory (wajib) to start every religiously important matter with the basmalah, excluding those matters that the rules of the Religion prescribed begin with other than the basmalah.  Examples of religiously important matters which do not start with the basmalah are the prayer, which starts with the takbir [6], and the supplication, which starts with the hamdalah [7].

          One is forbidden to start prohibited matters with the basmalah.  For example, it is sinful for one to say bismillah just as one starts to drink alcohol, a prohibited matter.  Moreover, some Hanafiyy scholars said if one starts drinking alcohol with saying bismillah, one blasphemes.  However, the correct judgment in this matter depends upon the persons intention in his saying.  If ones intention in saying the basmalah when drinking alcohol was to seek blessings, one blasphemes.  However, if ones intention was to seek protection from the harm of the alcohol one is drinking, one is sinful for that, but does not blaspheme.  On the other hand, starting any disliked (makruh) matter with the basmalah is judged as makruh.[8] 

          The preposition (al-jar) and its object (al-majrur) in the word bismi (بسم)  [ba (بَ) and ism (اسم) respectively] of the basmalah indicate either a verb such as abda (أبدأ) which means I start or a noun such as ibtida'i (إبتدائى) which means my starting.  So bismillah (بسم الله) means I start with the name of Allah or my starting is with the name of Allah.

          The word Allah (الله) is the Name of the Creator whose non-existence is impossible to be perceived in the mind.  Allah is the One and Only Deserving of all praises.  The name Allah (الله) is not derived from another root word. 

 

2.  {الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ} 

          Al-hamd (الْحَمْد) is the verbal praising by the tongue for the optional endowments bestowed upon one.  In saying al-hamdulillah (الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ) one is praising Allah praises that befit Him for the endowments and generosities He chose to bestow upon us without Him being obligated to do so.  Rabbil-^alamin (رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ) means the 'Lord i.e., the Owner of the Worlds.'  The singular form of al-^alamin (العالمين) is al‑^alam (العالم) and al‑^alam is everything other than Allah.  The world was called ^alam (عالم) because it is an indicator (^alamah, علامة), that is, the existence of this world indicates and proves Allah exists. 

 

3.  {الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ}              

          Ar-Rahman الرَّحْمَن)) is among the names exclusive for Allah.  It is not permissible to name other than Allah, ar-Rahman.  Ar-Rahman means, 'Allahs mercy accommodates the believer as well as the blasphemer in this world, and He is the One Who will be merciful to only the believers in the Hereafter.'  In confirming this meaning, Allah said in Surah al-A^raf, 156

{وَرَحْمَتِي وَسِعَتْ كُلَّ شَىءٍ فَسَأَكْتُبُهَا لِلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ}.

         Ar-Rahim (الرَّحِيم) is the One Who is merciful to the believers.  In confirming this meaning, Allah said in Surah al-Ahzab, 43:

{وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيمًا}.

            Ar-Rahman and ar-Rahim are both derived from the root word rahima (رَحِمَ).  According to the rules of forming derivations in Arabic, an additional letter in the structure of the word enhances its meaning.  The name ar-Rahman has an additional letter in its construction nun (ن) not present in the name ar-Rahim, and as such has a broader meaning. 

 

4.  {مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ}              

          Malik (مَالِك) means 'Allah is the Owner of all His creations and the One Who manages the creations as He wills.'  Yawmid-Din (يَوْمِ الدِّين) is the Day of Judgment, i.e., the Day of Reward and/or Punishment.  Indeed, Allah is the Owner of this world and the Hereafter.  Allah specified that He is the Owner of the Day of Judgment to reflect the importance of that day on which intense horrors take place.

 

5.  {إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ}                                                                                         

            Allah is the only One Who deserves from one the extreme humbleness and ultimate submission.  He is the One to be asked for goodness and for perpetuity of guidance, because the hearts are controlled by Allah.  This ayah denotes that one seeks the special help from Allah, i.e., Allah is the One Who creates what is beneficial for His slave in his livelihood.  However, this ayah does not mean that it is forbidden to seek any kind of help from other than Allah.  This is confirmed by the hadith of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, narrated by at-Tirmidhiyy:

<<والله فى عون العبد ما كان العبد فى عون أخيه>>

This means:  <<Allah shall aid the slave as long as the slave indulges in aiding his fellow brother.>>

 

6.  {اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ}                                                                                           

          This ayah means:  [O Allah, be generous to us by bestowing upon us the continual guidance along the Path of Islam.]

 

7.       {صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا الضَّآلِّينَ} 

          This ayah elucidates that the Path (as-Sirat, الصراط) is the path of the Religion that Allah generously bestowed upon the prophets and the angels {صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ}, and is the path of those whose share is not eternal punishment {غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ} and the path of those who do not go astray {وَلا الضَّآلِّينَ}.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAYING Amin (ءامين) AT THE END OF RECITING THE FATIHAH

 

            The word, Amin, means O Allah, grant us what we are asking.  Saying Amin at the end of reciting the Fatihah is, by consensus, not part of the Quran.  Rather it is a recommended (sunnah) matter to do so.  Imam al-Bukhariyy and the authors of the books of Sunan narrated the hadith:

<<إذا قال الإمام غير المغضوب عليهم ولا الضآلين فقولوا ءامين>>

This means:  <<If the imam says:  ghayril-maghdubi ^alayhim, waladdallin

{غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا الضَّآلِّينَ}, say,  'Amin.'>>

 


SURAH AN-NABA                                                                             سورة النبإ

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of forty (40) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

 

 

1.       Concerning what matter are the mushriks inquisitive and arguing?

 

عَمَّ يَتَسَاءَلُونَ (1)

 

 

2.       Regarding the Great News of Muhammad,

 

عَنِ النَّبَإِ الْعَظِيم ِ(2)

 

 

3.       And the Day of Judgment, upon which they cannot agree.

 

الَّذِى هُمْ فِيهِ مُخْتَلِفُون َ(3)

 

 

4.       Verily, the blasphemers shall soon know!

 

كَلا سَيَعْلَمُون َ(4)

 

 

5.       Again, verily, the blasphemers shall soon know!

 

ثُمَّ كَلا سَيَعْلَمُون َ(5)

 

 

6.       Have We [Allah] not made the earth as a cradled carpet,

 

أَلَمْ نَجْعَلِ الأَرْضَ مِهَادًا (6)

 

 

7.       And the mountains as stakes?

 

وَالْجِبَالَ أَوْتَادًا (7)

 

 

8.       And have We [Allah] not created you well-diversified,

 

وَخَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا (8)

 

 

9.       And made your sleep for silence and rest,

 

وَجَعَلْنَا نَوْمَكُمْ سُبَاتًا (9)

 

 

10.     And made the night silent and as a covering,

 

وَجَعَلْنَا اللَّيْلَ لِبَاسًا (10)

 

 

11.     And made the day useable as a means of your livelihood?

 

وَجَعَلْنَا النَّهَارَ مَعَاشًا (11)

 

 

12.     And have We [Allah] not built over you seven firm skies,

 

وَبَنَيْنَا فَوْقَكُمْ سَبْعًا شِدَادًا (12)

 

 

13.     And have We [Allah] not created the shining sun?

 

وَجَعَلْنَا سِرَاجًا وَهَّاجًا (13)

 

 

14.     And do We [Allah] not send down from the clouds abundant water,

 

وَأَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ الْمُعْصِرَاتِ مَاءً ثَجَّاجًا (14)

 

 

15.     That We [Allah] may produce therewith grains and plants,

 

لِنُخْرِجَ بِهِ حَبًّا وَنَبَاتًا (15)

 

 

16.     And orchards of dense growth?

 

وَجَنَّاتٍ أَلْفَافًا (16)

 

 

17.     Verily, the Day of Judgment, when truth will be sorted out from vileness, is appointed as the end of the world.

 

إِنَّ يَوْمَ الْفَصْلِ كَانَ مِيقَاتًا (17)

 

 

18.     The Day that the Horn shall be sounded, heralding the Resurrection and Assembly; and you will come forth in crowds.

 

يَوْمَ يُنْفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ فَتَأْتُونَ أَفْوَاجًا (18)

 

 

19.     And the sky shall be cracked and shall bear crevices,

 

وَفُتِحَتِ السَّمَاءُ فَكَانَتْ أَبْوَابًا (19)

 

 

20.     And the mountains shall be removed from their places and shall completely vanish.

 

وَسُيِّرَتِ الْجِبَالُ فَكَانَتْ سَرَابًا (20)

 

 

21.     Surely Hell shall ambush the blasphemer and imprison him,

 

إِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ كَانَتْ مِرْصَادًا (21)

 

 

22.     It is the dwelling place for those who transgress in their Religion by blaspheming,

 

لِلطَّاغِينَ مَآبًا (22)

 

 

23.     They will dwell therein perpetually, age after age.

 

لابِثِينَ فِيهَا أَحْقَابًا (23)

 

 

24.     Therein they shall not taste anything cool, nor any drink

 

لا يَذُوقُونَ فِيهَا بَرْدًا وَلا شَرَابًا (24)

 

 

25.     Except boiling water that burns and dense puss;

 

إِلا حَمِيمًا وَغَسَّاقًا (25)

 

 

26.     A severe torture fitting their ill deeds.

 

جَزَاءً وِفَاقًا (26)

 

 

27.     For that they disbelieved in the Day of Judgment and did not fear any account for their deeds,

 

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا لا يَرْجُونَ حِسَابًا (27)

 

 

28.     And they treated Our Quran as false.

 

وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا كِذَّابًا (28)

 

 

29.     We [Allah] preserved all things, punishable and rewardable, in the Guarded Tablet.

 

وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ أَحْصَيْنَاهُ كِتَابًا (29)

 

 

30.     So taste, O blasphemers, the results of your deeds; for We [Allah] will not grant you increase in anything, except punishment.

 

فَذُوقُوا فَلَنْ نَزِيدَكُمْ إِلا عَذَابًا (30)

 

 

31.     Verily the righteous shall win Paradise;

 

إِنَّ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ مَفَازًا (31)

 

 

32.     Orchards enclosed with various fruit trees,

 

حَدَائِقَ وَأَعْنَابًا (32)

 

 

33.     And maidens of the same age,

 

وَكَوَاعِبَ أَتْرَابًا (33)

 

 

34.     And a cup full to the brim with pure drink.

 

وَكَأْسًا دِهَاقًا (34)

 

 

35.     No ill words shall they hear therein, nor untruth;

 

لا يَسْمَعُونَ فِيهَا لَغْوًا وَلا كِذَّابًا (35)

 

 

36.     Recompense from their Lord, a gift of ample luxuries,

 

جَزَاءً مِنْ رَبِّكَ عَطَاءً حِسَابًا (36)

 

 

37.     From the Owner of the Heavens and the Earth and everything between, He is ar-Rahman; hence, none is entitled to object.

 

رَبِّ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا الرَّحْمَنِ لا يَمْلِكُونَ مِنْهُ خِطَابًا (37)

 

 

38.     There on the Day of Judgment, Jibril and the angels will stand in ranks.  None shall speak except the one who is permitted by ar-Rahman, and he will say what is right.

 

يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الرُّوحُ وَالْمَلائِكَةُ صَفًّا لا يَتَكَلَّمُونَ إِلا مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَنُ وَقَالَ صَوَابًا (38)

 

 

39.     That is the Day which is sure to come.  Therefore, whosoever wills safety, let him take a straight path to be acceptable to his Lord!

 

ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمُ الْحَقُّ فَمَنْ شَاءَ اتَّخَذَ إِلَى رَبِّهِ مَآبًا    (39)

 

 

40.     Verily, We [Allah] have warned you of a near punishment; the Day when one will see the deeds which his hands have sent forth, and the blasphemer will say, Woe unto me!  Would that I was dust.

إِنَّا أَنْذَرْنَاكُمْ عَذَابًا قَرِيبًا يَوْمَ يَنْظُرُ الْمَرْءُ مَا قَدَّمَتْ يَدَاهُ وَيَقُولُ الْكَافِرُ يَالَيْتَنِي كُنْتُ تُرَابًا (40)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

1.  {عَمَّ يَتَسَاءَلُونَ}                 

          Concerning what are the mushriks‑‑those blasphemers of Makkah who associated partners with Allah--inquisitive and arguing?  It was narrated that when the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, was revealed as the Messenger of Allah, the mushriks started inquiring and arguing among themselves about the reason for his coming and about the subject of his Revelation. Hence, this ayah was revealed.  This was narrated by Ibn Jarir from the route of al-Hasan.

 

2.  {عَنِ النَّبَإِ الْعَظِيم}             

          They were arguing about the great news of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, and the Message he brought; the news of the glorious Quran, the Resurrection, and the Day of Judgment.

 

3. {الَّذِي هُمْ فِيهِ مُخْتَلِفُون}     

         They argued and inquired about the Day of Judgment in which the mushriks of Makkah disbelieved and the believers confirmed its eventual happening.

 

4.  {كَلا سَيَعْلَمُون}                 

          [With certainty, the blasphemers shall soon know.]  The ayah starts with Kalla (كَلا).  Kalla (كَلا) signifies refuting the blasphemers who deny the Resurrection and the Day of Judgment.  The matter which the mushriks shall soon know is not mentioned specifically in the ayah to accentuate their fear of it.  The answer to what the mushriks will soon know is the severe chastisement that they will face for denying the Resurrection and the Day of Judgment.  This ayah refutes the mushriks and promises them with torture from Allah.

 

5.  {ثُمَّ كَلا سَيَعْلَمُون}            

          Again, with certainty, the blasphemers shall shortly know the torture that awaits them for denying the Resurrection and the Day of Judgment.  The repetition of the words of the previous ayah is of a corroborative nature, and strongly emphasizes the threat of severe punishment awaiting the blasphemer. 

 

The following verses (6-16) reflect the Power of Allah to resurrect and that He is the Creator.  Allah started by mentioning what humans occupy continuously.

 

6.  {أَلَمْ نَجْعَلِ الأَرْضَ مِهَادًا}                                                                                          

          [Have we not made the earth a cradled carpet?]  Allah created the earth for the creation similar to a babys cradle, on which to sleep.  Allah made the earth easily worked and manageable for mans use as a habitat.

 

7.  {وَالْجِبَالَ أَوْتَادًا}               

          Allah created the mountains as stakes or pegs to hold the earth in place so that it does not tilt and throw its occupants off its surface.

 

8.  {وَخَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا}           

          Allah created diverse creations of different colors, shapes, and languages so that the proper lessons would be learned and the favored ones would be thankful and the less-favored ones patient.

 

9.  {وَجَعَلْنَا نَوْمَكُمْ سُبَاتًا}       

          Allah made sleep the medium for silence and rest so that the people cease their movements that tired them during the day.

 

10. {وَجَعَلْنَا اللَّيْلَ لِبَاسًا}        

          Allah made the night a silent cover, veiling the things one does not like to reveal to others.

 

11.  {وَجَعَلْنَا النَّهَارَ مَعَاشًا}    

          Likewise, Allah made the daytime a time for earning ones living, running ones errands, and carrying out the matters of ones livelihood.

 

12.  {وَبَنَيْنَا فَوْقَكُمْ سَبْعًا شِدَادًا} 

          Allah created seven (7), perfect, firmly-structured skies.

 

13.{ وَجَعَلْنَا سِرَاجًا وَهَّاجًا}   

          Allah created a shining sun, as Imam al-Bukhariyy narrated from the route of Ibn ^Abbas.  The sun is excessively hot and is fervidly burning.

 

14.  {وَأَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ الْمُعْصِرَاتِ مَاءً ثَجَّاجًا}      

          Allah sends abundant water pouring down from the clouds.

 

15.  {لِنُخْرِجَ بِهِ حَبًّا وَنَبَاتًا}    

          With that water, Allah enables grains like wheat, barley, and other staple foods, as well as all the other plants (trees and grasses) to grow.

 

16.  {وَجَنَّاتٍ أَلْفَافًا}               

          Likewise, with that water, Allah enables orchards with densely crowded vegetation to grow.

 

Once the blasphemers know that Allah has the power to create all these matters, would they not know that Allah has the power to recreate the creation on the Day of Judgment?

After Allah named some of the endowments which He bestowed on His slaves and from which they benefit, Allah said:

 

17.  {إِنَّ يَوْمَ الْفَصْلِ كَانَ مِيقَاتًا}                    

          [The Day of Judgment shall sort out the truth from the untruth.]  It is a day predestined by Allah to be the appointed day that reveals the duration of this world and marks its end.

 

18.  {يَوْمَ يُنْفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ فَتَأْتُونَ أَفْوَاجًا}     

          On that day, Angel Israfil shall sound the Horn.  The reference in this ayah is to the last sound of the Horn which will mark the taking place of the Assembly.  The sounding of the Horn marks the beginning of the Resurrection.  The people shall rise in multitudes from their graves to the place of Assembly, as was narrated by Imam al-Bukhariyy from the route of Mujahid.

 

19.  {وَفُتِحَتِ السَّمَاءُ فَكَانَتْ أَبْوَابًا}                

          On that day the sky shall crack and have crevices. Ibn Kathir, Nafi^, Abu ^Amr, and ^Amir recited futtihat (َفُتِِّحَتِ) with a double ta'^Asim, Hamzah and al-Kisa'iyy recited futihat (َفُِتِحَتِ) with a single ta'.

 

20.  {وَسُيِّرَتِ الْجِبَالُ فَكَانَتْ سَرَابًا}              

          The mountains shall be removed from their places and completely destroyed.

 

21.  {إِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ كَانَتْ مِرْصَادًا}                       

          Surely Hell shall monitor the blasphemer and ambush him.  Hellfire now lies awaiting the Day of Judgment when it will inflict its torture on those who deserve it.  The blasphemer shall enter Hell and be imprisoned therein forever.  May Allah protect us from Hell.

 

22.  {لِلطَّاغِينَ مَآبًا}               

          Hell shall be the final destination and the everlastingly dwelling place for those who transgress in their religion by committing blasphemy.  May Allah protect us.

 

23.  {لابِثِينَ فِيهَا أَحْقَابًا}        

          Al-Kisa'iyy recited labithina (لبثين) without the alif of extension and the meaning is the same.  The blasphemers shall dwell in Hell as long as ages last--and the ages shall not come to an end.  When one age lapses, another starts, and so on the case shall be as such perpetually.  The term age huqb (حقب), the singular form of ages ahqab (احقاب) is eighty (80) years.  Al-Qushayriyy said:  The meaning is that they shall be there forever.

          Some people, such as Jahm Ibn Safwan, the head of the Jahmiyyah faction, falsely claim that Hellfire will cease to exist.  Some try to use this ayah and the meaning of the word huqb out of its proper context to justify this false claim that Hellfire will cease to exist.  There is nothing in the aforementioned ayah or in any other ayah which gives credence to their incorrect statement.  On the contrary, many ayahs talk about the perpetuity of Hellfire and the perpetuity of the torture of the blasphemers therein.  As such, the Muslim scholars have judged as blasphemers those who claim that Hellfire ceases to exist.  Among those scholars is the Hafidh and Mujtahid, Imam Taqqiyyuddin as-Subkiyy.  He stated this judgment in his treatise, Al-I^tibar Bibaqa Al-Jannah Wan-Nar, in which he refuted Ibn Taymiyahs claim that Hellfire comes to an end.

          Among the other strayings of Ibn Taymiyah is his claim that the kind of the world is eternal.  He mentioned this in more than five (5) of his books.  His creed is a blasphemous creed by the consensus of the scholars, as was mentioned by az-Zarkashiyy and Ibn Daqiq al-^Id. Other scholars also mentioned the same thing such as the  Hafidh Ibn Hajar (in his Explanation of al-Bukhariyy), and al-Qadi ^Iyyad, the Maliki scholar.  So do not be deceived by Ibn Taymiyahs attempt at embellishing his poisonous creed.

 

24.  {لا يَذُوقُونَ فِيهَا بَرْدًا وَلا شَرَابًا}            

          The blasphemers in Hell shall not taste the enjoyable cold drinks or any other drinks.

 

25.  {إِلا حَمِيمًا وَغَسَّاقًا}        

          The term illa (إلا) in this ayah gives an exception to the saying of Allah, wala sharaba (وَلا شَرَابًا) (nor any other drinks) in the previous ayah.  The meaning is that the blasphemers will only drink continually fervidly-boiling water that burns them and dense puss.  Ibn Kathir, Nafi^, Abu ^Amr, ^Amir, and Shu^bah recited ghasaqa (غساقا) with a single sinHafs from the route of ^Asim, Hamzah, and Al-Kisa'iyy recited with a double sin (ghassaqa) (غسَّاقا).

 

26.  {جَزَاءً وِفَاقًا}                  

          This torture is commensurate with their ill deeds and their blasphemy.

 

27.  {إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا لا يَرْجُونَ حِسَابًا}                 

          Imam al-Bukhariyy narrated from the route of Mujahid that this ayah means [they (the blasphemers) did not fear the Day of Judgment.]  They did not fear the Day of Judgment because they did not believe in it. 

 

28.  {وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا كِذَّابًا}      

          They exaggerated in belying the verses of the Quran.

 

 

 

29.  {وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ أَحْصَيْنَاهُ كِتَابًا}                    

          All the punishable and rewardable deeds are recorded in the Guarded Tablet for requital by Allah.  Among the recorded deeds is the blasphemers belying of the Quran. Likewise, the angels count the sins of the sinners and record them in books.

 

30.  {فَذُوقُوا فَلَنْ نَزِيدَكُمْ إِلا عَذَابًا}                

          Their perpetually increasing torture results from their denial of the Day of Judgment and from belying the Quran. The blasphemers are severely scolded in this verse and the severity of the punishment is clearly stated.  They will receive nothing but more torture!  Ibn Abu Hatim narrated from the route of Abu Barzah al-Aslamiyy that this ayah is the most severe of all the ayahs on the blasphemers and that it clarifies that in the Hereafter the blasphemers have no hope that their torture will lessen or stop.

 

The next ayahs (31-36) talk about the situation of the pious in the Hereafter.

 

31.  {إِنَّ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ مَفَازًا}          

          The righteous God-fearing person is the one who fulfills the obligations and refrains from the prohibitions.  These righteous God-fearing people shall be victorious winners.  They will be lead away from Hellfire and admitted to Paradise.

 

32.  {حَدَائِقَ وَأَعْنَابًا}             

          In Paradise, the righteous ones shall have orchards filled with various fruit-bearing trees.

 

33.  {وَكَوَاعِبَ أَتْرَابًا}            

          And young beautiful maidens equal in age.

 

34.  {وَكَأْسًا دِهَاقًا}                

          And a cup filled to the brim with a pure drink.

 

 

 

 

35.  {لا يَسْمَعُونَ فِيهَا لَغْوًا وَلا كِذَّابًا}             

          In Paradise, they shall not hear any lies or vanities, and no one shall belie the other. ^Aliyy recited Kidhaba (كذابا) with a single dhal. Al-Kisa'iyy recited both single and double dhal and the rest of the reciters recited double dhal.

 

36.  {جَزَاءً مِنْ رَبِّكَ عَطَاءً حِسَابًا}               

          Allah shall reward the God-fearing ones with many endowments and luxuries, and this is a generosity from Him.

 

37.  {رَبِّ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا الرَّحْمَنِ لا يَمْلِكُونَ مِنْهُ خِطَابًا}      

          Allah, Who is ar-Rahman, is the Owner of the Heavens and the Earth and all what is between them.  Hence, the occupants of the Heavens and Earth are not entitled to object to Allah regarding reward or punishment, because they are fully owned by Him.  This however, does not conflict with the intercession Allah grants to whomever He willed.  Al-Bukhariyy narrated from the route of Mujahid that la yamlikuna minhu khitaba (لا يَمْلِكُونَ مِنْهُ خِطَابًا) means, none shall speak to Him unless permitted by Allah.

Nafi^, Ibn Kathir, Abu ^Amr and Al-Mufaddal recited with dammah on the ba' in rabbu (ربّ ) and on the nun in Ar-Rahmanu (الرحمنِِ). Read as such the meaning would be, 'Allah is the Lord of Heaven and Earth.'

^Asim and Ibn ^Amir recited with a kasrah on the ba' in rabbi (ربّ) and the nun in Ar-Rahmani (الرحمنِِ). Read as such Ar-Rahmani (الرحمنِِ) would be an adjective to rabbi (ربّ).

Hamzah and Al-Kisa'iyy recited with a kasrah on the ba' and a dammah on the nun. Al-Farra' chose this recitation and a group of reciters concurred with him.

 

38.  {يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الرُّوحُ وَالْمَلائِكَةُ صَفًّا لا يَتَكَلَّمُونَ إِلا مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَنُ وَقَالَ صَوَابًا} 

          On the Day of Judgment, Jibril and the angels, who are among the highest esteemed and honored creations of Allah, shall stand silently in ranks out of glorification to their Lord. None shall intercede except those who are permitted by Allah among the believers and angels, who say what is correct.  Imam al-Bukhariyy narrated from the route of Mujahid that wa qala sawaba (وَقَالَ صَوَابًا) means he said the correct thing in this world and implemented it.  To those whose hearts are asleep in this life, the happening of the Day of Judgment is a far-fetched matter.  However, beyond doubt it will occur.  Its happening is a reality.  The believers and the blasphemers shall see a record of their deeds, whether good or evil. Proofs of their deeds will be established and presented and will either support or convict the person. 

          Abu Hurayrah and Ibn ^Umar said:  Allah resurrects the animals and the accounts among them will be settled.  Then they will be told to turn into soil, and into soil they will turn. The blasphemer shall hope the same for himself, that is, to turn into soil (like the animals).  The saying of Allah (Surah at-Takwir, 5) {وَإِذَا الْوُحُوشُ حُشِرَتْ} supports that the animals will be resurrected so that the accounts among them will be settled.  Pertaining to the narration of Muslim that the Messenger of Allah said:

<<لَتُؤَدَّنَّ الحقوق الى أهلها يوم القيامة حتى يُقادَ للشاة الجلحاء من الشاة القرناء >>

This means: <<The ones with rights owed to them shall receive them on the Day of Judgment, even the butted hornless lamb shall receive its right from the one with horns which butted him>>, Mujahid said:  The animals shall be resurrected and the butted one shall butt the one who butted him, and the poked one shall poke the one who poked him. 

          The aforementioned ayah and hadith contain the proof that animals do have a soul, whereas plants, although they grow and develop, do not have a soul.  Plants do not feel pain when harvested, whereas a lamb will feel pain when slaughtered.  The one who claims that animals do not have a soul has belied the Quran and the hadithAllah is wiser and knows best.

 

39.  {ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمُ الْحَقُّ فَمَنْ شَاءَ اتَّخَذَ إِلَى رَبِّهِ مَآبًا}                

          The Day of Judgment is confirmed and shall definitely occur at its pre-appointed time.  Let the one who wants safety in the Hereafter follow the straight path.  This ayah does not give a choice, rather it gives a promise of reward if one follows the correct path, and a threat of castigation if one chooses otherwise.

 

40.  {إِنَّا أَنْذَرْنَاكُمْ عَذَابًا قَرِيبًا يَوْمَ يَنْظُرُ الْمَرْءُ مَا قَدَّمَتْ يَدَاهُ وَيَقُولُ الْكَافِرُ يَالَيْتَنِي كُنْتُ تُرَابًا} 

The torture of the hereafter that Allah warned against shall soon occur. On the Day of Judgment the human being shall see his deeds, whether good or evil, affixed in his journal.               

This is a reaffirmation of the promise of reward and the threat of punishment and a warning about the torture in the Hereafter. 

 


SURAH AN-NAZI^AT                                                             سورة النازعات

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of forty-six (46) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

 

 

1.       I [Allah] adjure by the angels who wrench out the souls of the blasphemers;

 

وَالنَّازِعَاتِ غَرْقًا (1)

 

 

2.       I [Allah] adjure by the angels who gently slip out the souls of the believers;

 

والناشطات نشطًا (2)

 

 

3.       I [Allah] adjure by the angels who glide back and forth on errands, managing the horizons by the orders of Allah;

 

وَالسَّابِحَاتِ سَبْحًا (3)

 

 

4.       I [Allah] adjure by the angels who race forward to Paradise with the souls of the believers;

 

فَالسَّابِقَاتِ سَبْقًا (4)

 

 

5.       I [Allah] adjure by the angels who manage carrying out the commands of their Lord.

 

فَالْمُدَبِّرَاتِ أَمْرًا (5)

 

 

6.       The day the first sounding of the Horn shall quake the mountains and Earth;

 

يَوْمَ تَرْجُفُ الرَّاجِفَةُ (6)

 

 

 

7.       Followed by the second sounding of the Horn.

 

تَتْبَعُهَا الرَّادِفَةُ (7)

 

 

8.       The hearts of the blasphemers shall be dreadfully agitated;

 

قُلُوبٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَاجِفَةٌ (8)

 

 

9.       Cast down in humiliation shall be the eyes of those blasphemers.

 

أَبْصَارُهَا خَاشِعَةٌ (9)

 

 

10.     Mockingly they say, denouncing the Resurrection: Shall we indeed return to life in the graves?

 

يَقُولُونَ أَئِنَّا لَمَرْدُودُونَ فِي الْحَافِرَةِ (10)

 

 

11.     What!  When we shall have become rotten, decayed bones?

 

أَئِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا نَخِرَةً (11)

 

 

12.     They mockingly say: Our return to life would, in that case, be a losing one!

 

قَالُوا تِلْكَ إِذًا كَرَّةٌ خَاسِرَةٌ (12)

 

 

13.     But verily, it will be but a single sounding of the Horn,

 

فَإِنَّمَا هِيَ زَجْرَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ (13)

 

 

14.     When they will be brought out to the surface of the earth.

 

فَإِذَا هُمْ بِالسَّاهِرَةِ (14)

 

 

15.     [O Muhammad] has the story of Musa reached you?

 

هَلْ أتَاكَ حَدِيثُ مُوسَى (15)

 

 

16.     Behold, his Lord did call to him in the purely blessed Valley of Tuw a:

 

إِذْ نَادَاهُ رَبُّهُ بِالْوَادِ الْمُقَدَّسِ طُوًى (16)

 

 

 

17.     [O Musa] go you to Pharaoh, for he has indeed transgressed by committing blasphemy,

 

اذْهَبْ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُ طَغَى (17)

 

 

 

18.     And say to him, Wont you accept my call to Islam and purify you from sin?

 

فَقُلْ هَلْ لَكَ إِلَى أَنْ تَزَكَّى (18)

 

 

 

19.     And that I guide you to worship your Lord so that you may fear Him?

 

وَأَهْدِيَكَ إِلَى رَبِّكَ فَتَخْشَى (19)

 

 

 

20.     Then Musa showed Pharaoh the great miracles

 

فَأَرَاهُ الْآيَةَ الْكُبْرَى (20)

 

 

 

21.     But Pharaoh belied Musa and disobeyed Allah;

 

فَكَذَّبَ وَعَصَى (21)

 

 

 

22.     Further, he turned his back on the correct belief, and strived hard in corruption, and against Musa.

 

ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ يَسْعَى (22)

 

 

 

23.     Then he gathered his sorcerers and soldiers and made a loud proclamation,

 

فَحَشَرَ فَنَادَى (23)

 

 

 

24.     Saying, I am your Lord, most high.

 

فَقَالَ أَنَا رَبُّكُمُ الأَعْلَى (24)

 

 

 

25.     But Allah did punish him for his first statement and his last one; and Allah made an example of him.

 

فَأَخَذَهُ اللَّهُ نَكَالَ الْآخِرَةِ وَالأُولَى (25)

 

 

 

26.     Verily in this is a lesson for whosoever fears Allah.

 

إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَعِبْرَةً لِمَنْ يَخْشَى (26)

 

 

 

27.     What!  Are you the more difficult to create, or the sky above?  Allah has constructed it,

 

ءَأَنْتُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقًا أَمِ السَّمَاءُ بَنَاهَا (27)

 

 

 

28.     He raised the sky high over earth and every one of the seven skies over the other--perfectly constructed, smooth, and without defect.

 

رَفَعَ سَمْكَهَا فَسَوَّاهَا (28)

 

 

 

29.     Its night He endows with darkness, and its Duha (morning sun) He brings out with light.

 

وَأَغْطَشَ لَيْلَهَا وَأَخْرَجَ ضُحَاهَا (29)

 

 

 

30.     And the earth has He created before the sky, and made it suitable for habitation;

 

وَالأَرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ دَحَاهَا (30)

 

 

 

31.     He drew out from it its water and its pasture;

 

أَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا مَاءَهَا وَمَرْعَاهَا (31)

 

 

 

32.     And the mountains He has firmly fixed;

 

وَالْجِبَالَ أَرْسَاهَا (32)

 

 

 

33.     A provision for you and your livestock.

 

مَتَاعًا لَكُمْ وَلأَنْعَامِكُمْ (33)

 

 

 

34.     Therefore, when the great event of the Day of Judgment comes,

 

فَإِذَا جَاءَتِ الطَّآمَّةُ الْكُبْرَى (34)

 

 

 

35.     The Day when man shall remember all his deeds that he had forgotten,

 

يَوْمَ يَتَذَكَّرُ الإِنْسَانُ مَا سَعَى (35)

 

 

 

36.     And Hellfire shall be placed in full view for the one who sees,

 

وَبُرِّزَتِ الْجَحِيمُ لِمَنْ يَرَى (36)

 

 

 

37.     Then, for the one who had transgressed by disobedience and blasphemy,

 

فَأَمَّا مَنْ طَغَى (37)

 

 

 

38.     And had indulged in the desires of this life, and ignored preparations for the Hereafter,

 

وَءَاثَرَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا (38)

 

 

 

39.     The dwelling place will be Hellfire.

 

فَإِنَّ الْجَحِيمَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَى (39)

 

 

 

40.     For the one who had attended to the fear of standing before his Lord, and had restrained himself from sins and prohibitions,

 

وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ وَنَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَى (40)

 

 

 

41.     The abode will be Paradise.

 

فَإِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَى (41)

 

 

 

42.     Mockingly, the blasphemers of Makkah, ask you:  O Muhammad When will be the appointed time of the Day of Judgment?

 

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا (42)

 

 

 

43.     For what do they ask you, when you have not been granted such knowledge?

 

فِيمَ أَنْتَ مِنْ ذِكْرَاهَا (43)

 

 

 

44.     Allah alone knows the appointed time of the Day of Judgment.

 

إِلَى رَبِّكَ مُنْتَهَاهَا (44)

 

 

 

45.     You are but a Warner for those who fear it, and henceforth, abstain from blasphemy and transgression.

 

إِنَّمَا أَنْتَ مُنْذِرُ مَنْ يَخْشَاهَا (45)

 

 

 

46.     The day they see it, it will be as if they lived in this world for the duration of a single evenings dusk, or a single mornings light of the sun!

كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَهَا لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلا عَشِيَّةً أَوْ ضُحَاهَا (46)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

Allah adjured by certain things in the first five (5) ayahs to confirm to us that the Day of Judgment is a true matter:

 

1.  {وَالنَّازِعَاتِ غَرْقًا}           

          Allah adjures by the angels who violently wrench out the souls of the blasphemers,

 

2.  {وَالنَّاشِطَاتِ نَشْطًا}          

          Allah adjures by the angels who gently slip out the souls of the believers,

 

3.  {وَالسَّابِحَاتِ سَبْحًا}           

          Allah adjures by the angels who glide back and forth to the horizons to run the errands of managing and carrying out the orders of Allah,

 

4.  {فَالسَّابِقَاتِ سَبْقًا}              

          Allah adjures by the angels who are keen to race the souls of the believers forward to Paradise,

 

5.  {فَالْمُدَبِّرَاتِ أَمْرًا}             

          And Allah adjures by the angels who manage the rain, clouds, and plants as their Lord commanded them.

          Allah cleared the angels from the element of femininity[9] and rebuked the blasphemers who said that the angels are females in ayah 19 of Surah az-Zukhruf:

.{ وَجَعَلُوا الْمَلائِكَةَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَادُ الرَّحْمَنِ إِنَاثًا }

          Hence, the previous verses are in reference to the matters carried out by the angels while clearing them from the element of femininity.  In the first five (5) ayahs, Allah adjured by the aforementioned angels.  Al-Farra said,  'The answer statement which clarifies the subject matter of  the adjuration is not mentioned, however, its innate meaning is that Allah adjures by those angels that the blasphemers shall surely be resurrected and judged.  Allah left out stating this meaning because the meaning is insinuated in the text and is easily comprehended by the listener'.

          Ash-Sha^biyy said, 'The Creator adjures by whatever He wills among His creations.  However, the created one adjures only by the Creator.  Allah adjured by some of His creations that stand out in the eyes of His creations, to make His Power known to them.  The things that Allah adjured by indicate and prove the existence of Allah.  Moreover that they are the subject matter of Allahs adjuration is a sign that they contain benefits for the slaves of Allah.  For example, Allah adjured by at-tin (the figs) and az-zaytun (the olives). This is an indication that they contain benefits for the slaves of Allah.'

          The Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in Fath Al-Bari

Ash-Shafi^iyy said, I fear that it may be sinful to adjure by other than Allah (which means that it is extremely disliked).  The Imam of al-Haramayn said, Our school confirms that adjuring by other than Allah is disliked. Others gave details on the subject.  If one believes that what he adjures by is exalted as Allah is exalted, then it is forbidden to adjure by it and indeed it is blasphemy to adjure by it.  This is the context of the hadith narrated by at-Tirmidhiyy

<<من حلف بغير الله فقد كفر او اشرك>>

This means:  <<The one who adjures by other than Allah commits blasphemy or shirk>>.  However, if one adjures by other than Allah and aggrandizes it in a befitting manner, one does not blaspheme, but his oath is invalid.

 

6.  {يَوْمَ تَرْجُفُ الرَّاجِفَةُ}       

          The term ar-rajifah (الرَّاجِفَةُ) refers to the first sounding of the Horn' as mentioned by Ibn ^Abbas.  When it is sounded, the earth and the mountains will quake.

 

7.  {تَتْبَعُهَا الرَّادِفَةُ }

          Ar-radifah (الرّادفة) is 'the second sounding of the Horn.'  There are forty (40) years between the first and the second sounding.  Ibn ^Abbas said:  The two (2) soundings are the two (2) screams.  The first shall make everything die by the Will of Allah.  The second shall follow to quicken everything with life by the Will of Allah

 

8.  {قُلُوبٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَاجِفَةٌ}        

          On that day the hearts of the blasphemers will be extremely frenzied and dreadfully agitated.

 

9.  {أَبْصَارُهَا خَاشِعَةٌ}           

          The eyes of the blasphemers shall be cast downward in humiliation because of the dreadfulness they observe.

 

 

10.  {يَقُولُونَ أَئِنَّا لَمَرْدُودُونَ فِي الْحَافِرَةِ}      

          Ibn ^Abbas said:  "In mocking and denying the Resurrection, the blasphemers shall say, shall we indeed return to life in the grave!?" Their tone reflects that they believe this will not happen.

          Ibn ^Amir and the people of Al-Kufah recited with two light hamzahs on 'a'inna (أَئِنَّا) to reflect the interrogative context.

 

11.  {أَئِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا نَخِرَةً}    

          Al-Qurtubiyy said:  The blasphemers, in denying the Resurrection said, What! We shall be resurrected when we shall have become rotten decayed bones!

Hamzah and Abu Bakr from ^Asim recited nakhirah (نَاخِرَةً) and Al-Farra' said both recitations have the same meaning.

 

12.  {قَالُوا تِلْكَ إِذًا كَرَّةٌ خَاسِرَةٌ}                     

          Not believing that the Resurrection will happen, the blasphemers mockingly and denyingly said, If this return to the life happens in our graves, it shall be a losing affair for us.

 

13.  {فَإِنَّمَا هِيَ زَجْرَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ}                                                                                           

          Ar-Rabi^ Ibn Anas said that it means, 'But verily, it will be but a single sounding of the horn (in reference to the second sounding) that signals the beginning of the Resurrection and all will be alive again.'  This ayah shows that creating the Resurrection is an easy matter for Allah.  By this, Allah countered the blasphemers denial of the Resurrection in ayah 10 by confirming how easily will be created.

 

14.  {فَإِذَا هُمْ بِالسَّاهِرَةِ}         

          All creations shall gather on the surface of earth, brought up--after having been dead--from the belly of the earth.  Ibn Mas^ud said:

أرضا كأنها فضة لم يسفك فيها دم حرام و لم يعمل عليها خطيئة)  (تبدل الارض

This means, ' The earth shall change into a silver-like earth clear of any bloodshed or committed sins'.  The Hafidh Ibn Hajar said:  Al-Bayhaqiyy narrated it in Ash-Shu^ab and the chain of narrators qualify it as sahih.

 

 

 

15.  {هَلْ أتَاكَ حَدِيثُ مُوسَى}                        

          The meaning was stated by Al-Qurtubiyy and others.  They said it means:  'O Muhammad, you have received the story of Musa and the rebellion of Pharaoh, and how Musa was rescued and Pharaoh was destroyed.'  The underlying message is consoling the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, and putting him at ease--giving him the good tidings that he shall be saved from the harm of the mushriks, and that they shall be destroyed. 

 

16.  {إِذْ نَادَاهُ رَبُّهُ بِالْوَادِ الْمُقَدَّسِ طُوًى}         

          Al-Hasan said Tuwa (طُوًى) is a valley in Palestine.  Ibn ^Abbas said:  The name of that valley is Tuwa, which means 'saved', that is, 'purified and blessed'.  Allah called to Musa in the pure and blessed Valley of TuwaIbn Kathir, Nafi^, and Abu ^Amr recited Tuwa-dhhab      ( اذْهَبْ طوى) and the rest recited Tuwan (طُوًى) with a tanwin.

 

17.  {اذْهَبْ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُ طَغَى}                

          Allah informed Musa that Pharaoh transgressed by committing blasphemy.  Pharaoh was the title of al-Walid Ibn Mus^ab, the King of Egypt.  In the Arabic language, as was mentioned by al-Jawhariyy, every arrogant, sly snob is called 'pharaoh'. The term 'pharaohnism' in Arabic refers to shrewdness and arrogance.

 

18.  {فَقُلْ هَلْ لَكَ إِلَى أَنْ تَزَكَّى}                    

          Allah ordered Musa to say to Pharaoh:  Wont you accept my call to Islam and purify yourself from sin?  That is, 'I call on you to become Muslim, to do good deeds, to embellish yourself with merits, and to purify yourself from sins.'  Ibn Kathir and Nafi^ recited  tazzakka (تزكى) with a double zay.

 

19.  {وَأَهْدِيَكَ إِلَى رَبِّكَ فَتَخْشَى}                    

          (And for Musa to tell Pharaoh):  'I guide you to know Allah through proofs so that you may fear Him and thereby perform the obligations and refrain from the prohibitions.'  This ayah clearly denotes that believing in Allah takes precedence over other acts of obedience because Allah mentioned the guidance first.  Mentioning the fear of Allah came next, making it a consequence of being guided.

 

 

 

20.  {فَأَرَاهُ الآيَةَ الْكُبْرَى}       

          Prophet Musa went to Pharaoh and conveyed what his Lord had ordered him to convey, but Pharaoh demanded a proof.  So Musa performed the great miracle.  Imam al-Bukhariyy narrated in his commentaries that Mujahid said:  'The great sign was the miracle of his [Musas] staff and hand.'

 

21.  {فَكَذَّبَ وَعَصَى}            

          Pharaoh belied Musa and disobeyed Allah after witnessing the miracle which proved the truthfulness of Musa.

 

22.  {ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ يَسْعَى}              

          Pharaoh turned his back on the correct belief, endeavored to commit much corruption, and travailed in scheming against Musa.

 

23.  {فَحَشَرَ فَنَادَى}               

          Pharaoh gathered his sorcerers and soldiers to obstruct the truth and delivered a loud speech to them.

 

24.  {فَقَالَ أَنَا رَبُّكُمُ الأَعْلَى}   

          Pharaoh told them, I am your Lord, the glorified.  We seek refuge with Allah from this abhorrent statement.

 

25.  {فَأَخَذَهُ اللَّهُ نَكَالَ الْآخِرَةِ وَالأُولَى}           

          Allah punished Pharaoh and made an example out of him for his first statement:     عَلِمْتُ لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَهٍ غَيْرِي}   مَا} (Surah al-Qasas, 38) which means:  [I do not know any other Lord for you but me,] and for his second statement made forty years later:  {أَنَا رَبُّكُمُ الأَعْلَى} (Surah an-Nazi^at, 24) which means:  [I am your Lord the glorified.]  Allah punished Pharaoh in this life by drowning, and he shall be severely tortured in the Hereafter in Hellfire.

 

26.  {إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَعِبْرَةً لِمَنْ يَخْشَى}               

          That which happened to Pharaoh stands as a lesson for the one who fears Allah.

 

27.  {ءَأَنْتُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقًا أَمِ السَّمَاءُ بَنَاهَا}             

          In this ayah, Allah addressed the people of Makkah (who disbelieved in the Resurrection) scolding and refuting them, telling them:  According to you, which is more difficult, recreating you after death considering that you are weak or creating the sky considering its obvious perfect and lasting expanse.  In truth, creating both matters has the same standing in relation to the Power of Allah because His Power is perfect and is not lacking.

 

28.  {رَفَعَ سَمْكَهَا فَسَوَّاهَا}     

          Allah describes the sky as a sound structure that He created above us.  Allah made the skies very high.  A walking distance of five hundred (500) years separates the surface of the earth from the first sky, and likewise each successive sky to the next, up to the seventh sky.  Each sky has a thickness to it, which is the distance between its bottom surface and upper surface, as stipulated by the interpreter of the Quran, Abu Hayyan, in his interpretation An-Nahr al-MaddAllah created the sky smooth and level without any defects, clear of any elevations or depressions.  It is well-made and masterly built.

 

29.  {وَأَغْطَشَ لَيْلَهَا وَأَخْرَجَ ضُحَاهَا}            

          Allah made the skys night dark and brought out its morning sunlight.  Al-Qurtubiyy said:  Allah attributed the duha (ضحى) time which is the light of the sun prior to noon to the sky, because it contains the reason for darkness and daylight which is sunset and sunrise.  In this ayah Allah attributed both the layl (night) and the duha (pre-noon sunshine) to the sky. The layl is a result of the sun setting and the duha is a result of the sunrise. Both of these matters are due to the sun which travels within the domain of the sky.

 

30.  {وَالأَرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ دَحَاهَا}                                                                                      

          Allah created the earth before the sky. He created seven skies.  Ibn ^Abbas said:  Allah made the earth suitable for habitation.

 

31.  {أَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا مَاءَهَا وَمَرْعَاهَا}                

          Allah drew out from the earth its water, springs, and the plants of the pastures.

 

 

32.  {وَالْجِبَالَ أَرْسَاهَا}           

          Allah has firmly moored the mountains on earth to keep the earth stationary.

 

33.  {مَتَاعًا لَكُمْ وَلأَنْعَامِكُمْ}    

          Allah created that as a benefit for you and your livestock among camels, cows, and sheep as stipulated by an-Nawawiyy when he was proof‑reading the terms of the book of At-Tanbih.

 

34.  {فَإِذَا جَاءَتِ الطَّآمَّةُ الْكُبْرَى}                   

          Allah elucidated how He created the earths and the skies to prove He has the Power to create death and resurrection. When Allah established this and that the resurrection is intellectually permissible, Allah informed us about its happening.  Al-Mubarrad said:  At-tammah (الطّامّة) means the unbearable one.  Ibn ^Abbas said:  At-tammah al-kubra (الطَّامَّةُ الْكُبْرَى) means the Day of Judgment and Allah deemed its events as great.

 

35.  {يَوْمَ يَتَذَكَّرُ الإِنْسَانُ مَا سَعَى}                 

          On that Day, one shall remember the good and bad deeds he performed during this life.  One will see what is written in ones journal. One will see the things he had forgotten all about, either because of ones extreme negligence about the matters or because they happened long time ago.

 

36.  {وَبُرِّزَتِ الْجَحِيمُ لِمَنْ يَرَى}                    

          Hellfire shall be placed fully visible, fervidly burning, for everyone with sight.  The believer shall be thankful to Allah for His endowments.  Ibn ^Abbas and Mu^adh recited limar-ra'a (لمن رأى) with a hamzah between the ra' and the 'alif.

 

37.  {فَأَمَّا مَنْ طَغَى}              

          Then, for the one who had transgressed and committed sins and blasphemy,

 

38.  {وَءَاثَرَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا}       

          And had indulged in the desires of this life by following ones personal desires while neglecting preparing for the Hereafter,

 

39.  {فَإِنَّ الْجَحِيمَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَى}                                                                                        

          Hellfire will be his dwelling place.

 

40.  {وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ وَنَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَى}         

          As to the one who had attended to the fear of standing before his Lord for judgment of his deeds, and had restrained himself from the sins and the prohibitions,

 

41.  {فَإِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَى} 

          Paradise shall be his abode.

 

42.  {يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا}       

          Mockingly, the blasphemers of Makkah ask you Muhammad when the appointed time of the Day of Judgment will occur.

 

43.  {فِيمَ أَنْتَ مِنْ ذِكْرَاهَا}     

          Why do they ask you, O Muhammad, when you have no knowledge of its time?  In this ayah Allah denounced the mushriks for asking Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, when the appointed time of the Day of Judgment is.

 

44.  {إِلَى رَبِّكَ مُنْتَهَاهَا}         

          Allah alone knows the appointed time of the Day of Judgment.  No one else has such knowledge. Allah said in Surah Luqman, ayah 34:

{ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ }

Which means:  [Allah alone has the Knowledge of the appointed time of the Day of Judgment.]

 

45.  {إِنَّمَا أَنْتَ مُنْذِرُ مَنْ يَخْشَاهَا}                   

          O Muhammad, those who will benefit from your warning are those who fear the Day of Judgment and therefore abstain from blasphemy and transgression.  Although Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, is a Warner for every mukallaf (accountable person), the ones who will benefit from his warnings are those who fear the Day of Judgment.  Abu Ja^far recited  mundhirun   (منذر) with tanwin.

 

 

 

46.  {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَهَا لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلا عَشِيَّةً أَوْ ضُحَاهَا}           

          Ar-Raziyy said in Mukhtar Assahah, When the blasphemers see the Day of Judgment, it will be as if they lived in this world for a single evenings dusk or a single mornings pre-noon sunshine. Also he said that ^ashiyyah (عَشِيَّةً) is from the time of the Maghrib prayer until Nightfall.

Muhammad Murtada Az-Zabidi said: ' duhaha (ضُحَاهَا) is when the sun rises. What is meant is that at these times the world seems little in the eyes of the blasphemer.'

 


SURAH ^ABASA                                                                              سورة عبس

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of forty-two (42) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

 

 

 

1.       The Prophet frowned and turned his face away,

 

عَبَسَ وَتَوَلَّى (1)

 

 

2.       When the blind man came to him.

 

أَنْ جَاءَهُ الأَعْمَى (2)

 

 

3.       But O Muhammad, how could you know he might, by your words, purify himself!

 

وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّهُ يَزَّكَّى (3)

 

 

4.       Or that he might receive admonition from your preaching, and the reminder might benefit him!

 

أَوْ يَذَّكَّرُ فَتَنْفَعَهُ الذِّكْرَى (4)

 

 

5.       As for the one who does without  the belief and Quran because of ones wealth,

 

أَمَّا مَنِ اسْتَغْنَى (5)

 

 

6.       To him do you attend!

 

فَأَنْتَ لَهُ تَصَدَّى (6)

 

 

7.       Although it is no blame on you if the blasphemer does not purify himself with Islam.

 

وَمَا عَلَيْكَ أَلا يَزَّكَّى (7)

 

 

8.       But as to the one who hastened to you seeking goodness and knowledge,

 

وَأَمَّا مَنْ جَاءَكَ يَسْعَى (8)

 

 

9.       And was fearful of Allah,

 

وَهُوَ يَخْشَى (9)

 

 

10.     Of him you were pre-occupied!

 

فَأَنْتَ عَنْهُ تَلَهَّى (10)

 

 

11.     After this time do not do the same, for the Quran contains preaching and is enlightening to the creations.

 

كَلاَّ إِنَّهَا تَذْكِرَةٌ (11)

 

 

12.     Therefore, whoever wills does memorize the Quran and learn from its lessons.

 

فَمَنْ شَاءَ ذَكَرَهُ (12)

 

 

13.     Enlightenments contained in books held in great honor,

 

فِي صُحُفٍ مُكَرَّمَةٍ (13)

 

 

14.     Dignified and kept pure and holy,

 

مَرْفُوعَةٍ مُطَهَّرَةٍ (14)

 

 

15.     Written by the hands of the copying angels,

 

بِأَيْدِي سَفَرَةٍ (15)

 

 

16.     Honorable, pious, just, and obedient to Allah.

 

كِرَامٍ بَرَرَةٍ (16)

 

 

17.     Woe to the blasphemer!  How severe is his blasphemy!!

 

قُتِلَ الإنْسَانُ مَا أَكْفَرَهُ (17)

 

 

18.     From what material has Allah created him that made him act arrogantly?

 

مِنْ أَيِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ (18)

 

 

19.     From a sperm-drop  Allah has created him and then molded him in due stages;

 

مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ خَلَقَهُ فَقَدَّرَهُ (19)

 

 

20.     Then Allah made the path of his delivery smooth for him;

 

ثُمَّ السَّبِيلَ يَسَّرَهُ (20)

 

 

21.     Then Allah causes him to die and be buried;

 

ثُمَّ أَمَاتَهُ فَأَقْبَرَهُ (21)

 

 

22.     Then, when Allah wills, He will quicken him again.

 

ثُمَّ إِذَا شَاءَ أَنْشَرَهُ (22)

 

 

23.     By no means has the blasphemer fulfilled the orders of Allah.

 

كَلا لَمَّا يَقْضِ مَا أَمَرَهُ (23)

 

 

24.     Then, let man take lessons by looking at how Allah provided his food.

 

فَلْيَنْظُرِ الإنْسَانُ إِلَى طَعَامِهِ (24)

 

 

25.     For that Allah pours water abundantly from the clouds,

 

 

أَنَّا صَبَبْنَا الْمَاءَ صَبًّا (25)

 

 

26.     And Allah makes the plants split the earth as they emerge,

 

ثُمَّ شَقَقْنَا الأَرْضَ شَقًّا (26)

 

 

27.     And produces therein staple grains,

 

فَأَنْبَتْنَا فِيهَا حَبًّا (27)

 

 

28.     And grapes and dates,

 

وَعِنَبًا وَقَضْبًا (28)

 

 

29.     And olive and date trees,

 

وَزَيْتُونًا وَنَخْلا (29)

 

 

30.     And enclosed gardens, dense with trees,

 

وَحَدآئِقَ غُلْبًا (30)

 

 

31.     And a diversity of fruits and forages,

 

وَفَاكِهَةً وَأَبًّا (31)

 

 

32.     A provision for you and your livestock.

 

مَتَاعًا لَكُمْ وَ لأَنْعَامِكُمْ (32)

 

 

33.     But when the second sounding of the Horn comes, heralding the Day of Judgment,

 

فَإِذَا جَاءَتِ الصَّآخَّةُ (33)

 

 

34.     On that Day man shall flee from his own brother,

 

يَوْمَ يَفِرُّ الْمَرْءُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ (34)

 

 

35.     And from his mother and his father,

 

وَأُمِّهِ وَأَبِيهِ (35)

 

 

36.     And from his wife and his children:

 

وَصَاحِبَتِهِ وَبَنِيهِ (36)

 

 

37.     Each one of them shall be occupied by his own concerns over the concerns of others.

 

لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مِنْهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ شَأْنٌ يُغْنِيهِ (37)

 

 

38.     The faces of the believers on that Day shall be beaming,

 

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ مُسْفِرَةٌ (38)

 

 

39.     Laughing and rejoicing.

 

ضَاحِكَةٌ مُسْتَبْشِرَةٌ (39)

 

 

40.     And the faces of the blasphemers, on that Day, will be dust-stained with sadness,

 

وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَلَيْهَا غَبَرَةٌ (40)

 

 

41.     Covered with darkness.

 

تَرْهَقُهَا قَتَرَةٌ (41)

 

 

42.     Such will be the blasphemers, the doers of iniquity.

أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْكَفَرَةُ الْفَجَرَةُ (42)

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

1.  {عَبَسَ وَتَوَلَّى}                  

          At-Tirmidhiyy, al-Hakim, and Ibn Hibban reported from the route of ^Aishah that she said:  This ayah was revealed about the blind man, Ibn Umm Maktum.  His name was ^Amr Ibn Qays (another saying was that it was ^Abdullah Ibn Qays). He was Lady Khadijahs maternal cousin.  Az-Zabidiyy said:  The Prophet frowned.  Al-Bukhariyy said:  The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, turned his honorable face away.

 

2.  {أَنْ جَاءَهُ الأَعْمَى}            

          Ubay Ibn Ka^b, al-Hasan and Abu ^Imran recited 'an ja'ahu (ءانْ جَاءَهُ) with one extended hamzah with a fathah.  Ibn Mas^ud recited 'a'an (اان) with two non-extended hamzahs with fathahs.

          Al-Qastalaniyy (in his explanation of al-Bukhariyy) and others said that the ayah refers to the blind man, ^Abdullah Ibn Umm Maktum, who came to the Prophet when several prominent figures from Quraysh were present with the Prophet.  They were ^Utbah and Shaybah, the sons of Rabi^ah, Abu Jahl ^Amr the son of Hisham, and Ubayy and Umayyah, the sons of KhalafIbn Umm Maktum said, 'O Messenger of Allah, teach me from that which Allah taught you'.  He repeatedly requested that of the Prophet without knowing that the Prophet was occupied calling those leaders of Quraysh to Islam.  The Prophet was very keen in calling those people to Islam because he was hopeful if they embraced Islam, their tribes would follow their lead.  This information was mentioned by al-Qurtubiyy.  The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, disliked that he was interrupted, so he frowned and turned his honorable face away from Ibn Umm Maktum.  The Prophet was mildly reproved for that.

          Mentioning he was blind highlights his excuse for interrupting the Prophet and points out the gentleness and attendance due to him.  Ath-Thawriyy said:  After this incident, the Prophet used to invite Ibn Umm Maktum to sit next to him on his carpet and tell him, 

<<مرحبًا بمن عاتبنى فيه ربى ويقول له هل لك حاجة>>

This means:  <<I welcome the one because of whom Allah mildly reproved me; and would ask him if he needs anything.>> The Prophet appointed him twice to lead the people in prayers in al-Madinah when the Prophet was occupied in two of his battles.  Ibn Umm Maktum used to call the adhan along with Bilal and others, may Allah raise their ranks. 

 

3.  {وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّهُ يَزَّكَّى}   

          O Muhammad, what makes you know his situation!?  He could have purified himself from the sins by what he hears from you.  Al-Baydawiyy said:  This ayah insinuates that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, did not pay immediate attention to Ibn Umm Maktum, so that he may purify the others who were in his session from their sins.

 

4.  {أَوْ يَذَّكَّرُ فَتَنْفَعَهُ الذِّكْرَى} 

          Or Ibn Umm Maktum might have received admonition from your preaching and the reminder might have benefited him.

 

5.  {أَمَّا مَنِ اسْتَغْنَى}              

          Some said that the wealthy people were meant by this ayahAr-Raziyy said that this interpretation is invalid in this context, because the Prophet did not pay special attention to them because they were wealthy.  Rather, the meaning pertains to those who do not acknowledge the belief and the Quran because of their wealth.  Ata mentioned this as well.  The ayah refers to those people whom the Prophet was occupied inviting to Islam--when the blind man interrupted him.  Those same people were killed in battles later on and died as blasphemers while fighting the Muslims.  ^Utbah and Shaybah, the sons of Rabi^ah, Abu Jahl ^Amr the son of Hisham, and Umayyah the son of Khalaf were killed during the Battle of BadrUbayy, the son of Khalaf, was killed in the Battle of Uhud by a dart the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, threw at him.

 

6.  {فَأَنْتَ لَهُ تَصَدَّى}

          O Muhammad, you attend to the blasphemer and turn your face toward him. Scholars of recitation recited tassadda (Nafi^ and Ibn Kathir), tasada (^Asim, Abu ^Amr, Ibn ^Amir, Al-Kisa'iyy), tatasadda ('Ubayy Ibn Ka^b and Abu Al-Jawza'), and tusda (Ibn Mas^ud and Al-Jahdariyy).

 

7.  {وَمَا عَلَيْكَ ألا يَزَّكَّى}

          As degradation to the blasphemers Allah tells the Prophet 'You are not blamed if the blasphemer whom you invite to Islam does not purify himself by embracing Islam.  The guidance is created by Allah and you are only to convey.'  After the revelation of this ayah, the order of Allah to fight the blasphemers was revealed.

 

8.  {وَأَمَّا مَنْ جَاءَكَ يَسْعَى}    

          Whereas the one who rushed to you--in reference to Ibn Umm Maktum--seeking goodness and knowledge for the sake of Allah,

 

9.  {وَهُوَ يَخْشَى}                   

          Who is fearful of Allah,

 

 

10.  {فَأَنْتَ عَنْهُ تَلَهَّى}            

          From him you were pre-occupied.  Scholars of recitation recited tatalahha (Ibn Mas^ud, Abu Al-Jawza' , Talhah Ibn Masraf) and tulha ('Ubay Ibn Ka^b, Al-Jahdariyy, Ibn as-Samayfi^)

 

11.  {كَلاَّ إِنَّهَا تَذْكِرَةٌ}             

          O Muhammad, do not do the same incident after that one.  However, what the Prophet did was neither an enormous sin nor a small sin.  Those who said it was a small sin were wrong. (إِنَّهَا تَذْكِرَةٌ) means, ' the ayas of the Qur'an contain preachments and enlightenment for the creation.'

 

12.  {فَمَنْ شَاءَ ذَكَرَهُ}            

          Therefore, the one who wills will remember to memorize the Quran and consequently, will learn from the lessons contained therein.

 

13.  {فِي صُحُفٍ مُكَرَّمَةٍ}      

          This reminder (the preachments contained therein) is affixed in honorable books.  Ar-Raziyy and an-Nasafiyy said:  They are honorable books copied from the Guarded Tablet.  It was also said that these are the books revealed to the prophets as in the saying of Allah in Surah al-A^la 18, 19

{ إِنَّ هَذَا لَفِي الصُّحُفِ الأُولَى)(18)صُحُفِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَى(19)}

It was also mentioned that what is meant by the honorable books is the Guarded Tablet.

 

14.  {مَرْفُوعَةٍ مُطَهَّرَةٍ}          

          These books are of sublime status and are kept pure and holy. They are touched only by the purified creatures--the angels.

 

15.  {بِأَيْدِي سَفَرَةٍ}                 

          Ibn ^Abbas and others said:  These pure and honored books are in the hands of the honorable angels who copy.

 

16.  {كِرَامٍ بَرَرَةٍ}                   

          These angels are honorable, pious, just, and always obedient to Allah.

 

 

 

17.  {قُتِلَ الإنْسَانُ مَا أَكْفَرَهُ}  

          Ibn Al-Mundhir related from the route of ^Ikrimah that he said: ' this ayah was revealed about ^Utbah Ibn Abu Lahab when he said { كفرت برب النجم} which means, ' I disbelief in the Lord who created the star.' This ayah means, ' damned is the blasphemer; how severe is his blasphemy!!' The linguistic form of the term qutila (قُتِلَ) in Allahs saying appears to be a form of supplication; however, Allah is clear of supplicating.  Thus, the intended meaning is the severe dispraise of the blasphemy of the blasphemers.  Likewise, the linguistic form of the term ma akfarah (مَا أَكْفَرَهُ) in Allahs saying appears to reflect wonder; however, Allah is clear from wondering.  The intended meaning of the ayah is to make everyone appalled by the severity of the blasphemy of the blasphemer.  Hence, the meaning therein is:  It is duly rightful to say about the blasphemer He is damned for his blasphemy is utterly severe.  Damned here means he is deprived and ostracized from any goodness.  Wonder is an emotion that occurs when one is ignorant of or is in awe of a certain thing.  Some wise men said:  Wonder is the thing whose cause is ambiguous.  This is why scholars, like al-Raghib al-Asbahaniyy, said it is non-befitting to attribute wondering to Allah because Allah is the One Who knows all the unforeseen and nothing is hidden from His Knowledge. 

 

18.  {مِنْ أَيِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ}       

          The ayah brings to light that the blasphemer has no reason to act arrogantly.  Did he not see what he was created from?  It is an interrogatory format to establish that he was created from a very insignificant thing.

 

19.  {مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ خَلَقَهُ فَقَدَّرَهُ}   

          The Messenger of Allah said in part of his hadith narrated by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim from the route of Ibn Mas^ud:

<<إنَّ أحدَكُم يُجْمعُ خَلْقُهُ فى بطنِ أمهِ اربعينَ يومًا نطفةً، ثم يكونُ علقةً مثلَ ذلك، ثم يكونُ مُضْغةً مثلَ دلك، ثم يُرْسِلُ اللهُ اليه الملك فينفُخُ فيه الروحَ، يؤمَرُ باربع كلبماتٍ بكتبِ رزقِهِ وعملِهِ وأجَلِهِ وشقيٌ أو سعيد.>>

which means:  <<The creation of one of you starts as a nutfah (نطفة) a sperm-drop, for forty (40) days in his mothers womb, then as an a ^alaqah (علقة) (a thick coagulated blood clot, for the same duration, and then as a mudghah (مُضْغة) (looks in size like a bite of meat, for the same duration of time. The angel is then sent by Allah to blow the soul into him and is ordered to write four (4) matters: the persons sustenance, his deeds, his death time, and whether he is among the People of Paradise or the People of Hellfire.  Al-Fayyumiyy mentioned that the nutfah is the sperm drop from which man is created, the ^alaqah  is a stage of the sperm drop developed into a thick coagulated blood clot, and the mudghah is a stage when it turns into a bite's sized -like piece of meat.

          The meaning of the ayah is that arrogance and tyranny are not suitable for the one whose origin is a nutfah and then ^alaqah and then mudghahAllah molded the person in due stages until he was completely created.  Allah molded his hands, his feet, his eyes, and the rest of his body parts--beautiful or ugly, tall or short--and foreordained him whether he is among the dwellers of Paradise or Hellfire. 

 

20.  {ثُمَّ السَّبِيلَ يَسَّرَهُ}            

          Allah created the cervix as the outer end of the womb to facilitate the exit path of the human being.  When the time of his delivery comes near, Allah inspires the fetus to turn his body around so that his head is down after it was towards the upper part of his mothers abdomen.  Praise be to Allah, the Creator of the human being and his form.

It was said by Al-Hasan and Mujahid hat the ayah means, 'Allah facilitated for him the knowledge of the routes of goodness and of evil.'

 

21.  {ثُمَّ أَمَاتَهُ فَأَقْبَرَهُ}             

          Allah causes him to die and be buried in a grave instead of lying on the surface of the earth to be eaten by scavengers and beasts.

 

22.  {ثُمَّ إِذَا شَاءَ أَنْشَرَهُ}         

          Then after his death, Allah quickens and resurrects him.  Allah is the only One Who knows the appointed time of the Resurrection.

 

23.  {كَلا لَمَّا يَقْضِ مَا أَمَرَهُ} 

          The term kalla (كلا) in the ayah denotes severe scolding and reprimanding of the blasphemer for his blasphemy, for he did not obey Allahs orders to believe in Him and be obedient to Him.

 

24.  {فَلْيَنْظُرِ الإنْسَانُ إِلَى طَعَامِهِ}                  

          Let man be pensive about how Allah created food for him and how that food enters and exits his body. This is an invitation for the heart to think about the greatness of the Power of Allah.

 

25.  {أَنَّا صَبَبْنَا الْمَاءَ صَبًّا}    

^Asim, Hamzah and Al-Kisa'iyy recited 'anna whether continuing after or stopping at the recitation of the previous verse.         

Ibn Kathir, Nafi^, Abu ^Amr and Ibn ^Amir recited 'inna. Azzajjaj said reciting 'inna is in the context of commencing and continuing the recitation, and reciting 'anna is in the context of an exchangeable term for food (الطعام). The ayah means, ' Allah makes the rain pour down abundantly from the clouds.'

 

26.  {ثُمَّ شَقَقْنَا الأَرْضَ شَقًّا}                                                                                            

          And causes the plants to emerge splitting the earth apart as they surface.

 

27.  {فَأَنْبَتْنَا فِيهَا حَبًّا}            

          Allah creates all the staple grains on Earth such as wheat and barley.

 

28.  {وَعِنَبًا وَقَضْبًا}              

          Also Allah creates grapes and dates.  Ibn ^Abbas said the al-qadba (القضب) are the dates because the branches that bear them are cut off the date trees.

 

29.  {وَزَيْتُونًا وَنَخْلا }           

          [Allah creates] olives and date trees.

 

30.  {وَحَدَائِقَ غُلْبًا}                

          Likewise Allah creates many walled-in orchards dense with lofty trees, as mentioned by Azzajjaj.

 

31.  {وَفَاكِهَةً وَأَبًّا}                 

          And Allah creates fruits of different kinds and forages for the animals as was mentioned by Ibn ^Abbas. It was said the ayah refers to the moist fruits.

 

32.  {مَتَاعًا لَكُمْ ولأََنْعَامِكُمْ)     

          The aforementioned ayahs (27-31) state things Allah created for the benefit of mankind and his livestock, among which are the camels, cows, and sheep.

 

33.  {فَإِذَا جَاءَتِ الصَّآخَّةُ}     

          It is in reference to the second sounding of the Horn on the Day of Judgment. Al-Khalil Ibn Ahmad said:  as-Sakhkhah (الصَّاخَّةُ) is a scream that deafens the ears from its heavy impact.  As-Samin said:  It is an intermitted scream that ruptures the hearts of those who hear it.  Abu Hayyan and others said in further explanation of the ayah:  On that Day every person shall be totally occupied with his own situation.

 

 

 

34.  {يَوْمَ يَفِرُّ الْمَرْءُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ}                                                                                        

          On that Day--a result of its intensity--the human being shall not pay heed to any of his relatives.  Not to his brother,

 

35.  {وَأُمِّهِ وَأَبِيهِ}                   

          Not his mother or father,

 

36.  {وَصَاحِبَتِهِ وَبَنِيهِ}           

          Not his wife or children.

 

37.  {لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مِنْهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ شَأْنٌ يُغْنِيهِ}        

          Each one among them shall be too occupied with his own situation to pay heed to others.  Abu ^Abd Ar-Rahman As-Sulamiyy, Az-Zuhriyy, Abu Al-^Aliyah, Ibn As-Sumayfi^ and Ibn Muhaysin recited ya^nih.

 

38.  {وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ مُسْفِرَةٌ}     

          The faces of the upright, righteous people shall be illuminated on the Day of Judgment because they know of the goodness and luxury that awaits them. 

 

39.  {ضَاحِكَةٌ مُسْتَبْشِرَةٌ}       

          Their faces shall be delightful and gleaming with happiness due to the generosity that Allah endowed upon them.

 

40.  {وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَلَيْهَا غَبَرَةٌ}                                                                                     

          As to the faces of the blasphemers, they shall be dusty and ridden with sadness.

 

41.  {تَرْهَقُهَا قَتَرَةٌ}                                                                                                         

          And their faces shall be covered with darkness.  Ubayy Ibn Ka^b said about Surat al-Haqqah, 14: {وَحُمِلَتِ الأَرْضُ وَالْجِبَالُ فَدُكَّتَا دَكَّةً وَاحِدَةً} that the mountains and earth shall demolish into dust that covers the faces of the blasphemers but not the faces of the believers.  Ayahs 40 and 41 of Surat ^Abasa support this meaning.  Al-Hakim narrated Ubayy Ibn Ka^bs saying and classified it as sahih.  Adh-Dhahabiyy concurred with him.

 

42.  {أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْكَفَرَةُ الْفَجَرَةُ}                                                                                        

          Those are the faces of the blasphemers and doers of iniquity.

 


SURAH AT-TAKWIR                                                                   سورة التكوير

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of twenty-nine (29) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

 

 

1.       When the sun loses its spacious light and darkens out;

 

إِذَا الشَّمْسُ كُوِّرَتْ (1)

 

 

2.       When the stars scatter and fall, losing their glitter;

 

وَإِذَا النُّجُومُ انْكَدَرَت ْ(2)

 

 

3.       When the mountains are wrenched out and leveled;

 

وَإِذَا الْجِبَالُ سُيِّرَتْ (3)

 

 

4.       When the she-camels, ten months pregnant, are left untended;

 

وَإِذَا الْعِشَارُ عُطِّلَتْ (4)

 

 

5.       When the beasts are herded together for requital;

 

وَإِذَا الْوُحُوشُ حُشِرَتْ (5)

 

 

6.       When the oceans completely dry out;

 

وَإِذَا الْبِحَارُ سُجِّرَتْ (6)

 

 

7.       When the souls are paired together, each with its alike;

 

وَإِذَا النُّفُوسُ زُوِّجَتْ (7)

 

 

8.       When the female infant who was buried alive, is asked,

 

وَإِذَا الْمَوْءُودَةُ سُئِلَتْ (8)

 

 

9.       For what sin was she murdered;

 

بِأَيِّ ذَنْبٍ قُتِلَتْ (9)

 

 

10.     When the journals recording deeds of men, good or bad, are spread open;

 

وَإِذَا الصُّحُفُ نُشِرَتْ (10)

 

 

11.     When the sky is vigorously scraped;

 

وَإِذَا السَّمَاءُ كُشِطَتْ (11)

 

 

12.     When the fire of Hell is fueled to a blazing fervid heat;

 

 

وَإِذَا الْجَحِيمُ سُعِّرَتْ (12)

 

 

13.     When Paradise is brought nearer;

 

وَإِذَا الْجَنَّةُ أُزْلِفَتْ (13)

 

 

14.     Then, shall each soul know what it has brought forward in its journal.

 

عَلِمَتْ نَفْسٌ مَا أَحْضَرَتْ (14)

 

 

15.     Verily, I swear by the receding stars,

 

فَلا أُقْسِمُ بِالْخُنَّسِ (15)

 

 

16.     The planets that set and hide,

 

الْجَوَارِ الْكُنَّسِ (16)

 

 

17.     And the night as it falls and disappears,

 

وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا عَسْعَسَ (17)

 

 

18.     And the dawn as it breathes out its light;

 

وَالصُّبْحِ إِذَا تَنَفَّسَ (18)

 

 

19.     Verily, this Quran is the Word of Allah brought down by Archangel Jibril, a most honorable messenger,

 

إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ (19)

 

 

20.     Supported with extreme power to carry out what Allah ordered him without any weakness or powerlessness,

 

ذِي قُوَّةٍ عِنْدَ ذِي الْعَرْشِ مَكِينٍ (20)

 

 

21.     Obeyed by the angels of the sky and entrusted with the Revelation.

 

مُطَاعٍ ثَمَّ أَمِينٍ (21)

 

 

22.     And, O people of Makkah, contrary to your claim, Muhammad is not insane.

 

وَمَا صَاحِبُكُمْ بِمَجْنُونٍ (22)

 

 

23.     And surely Muhammad saw Jibril in the clear eastern horizon.

 

وَلَقَدْ رَآهُ بِالأُفُقِ الْمُبِينِ (23)

 

 

24.     And surely Muhammad does not withhold any of the Revelation.

 

وَمَا هُوَ عَلَى الْغَيْبِ بِضَنِينٍ (24)

 

 

25.     The Quran, contrary to your claim, is not the word of an accursed Satan.

 

وَمَا هُوَ بِقَوْلِ شَيْطَانٍ رَجِيمٍ (25)

 

 

26.  So, where else would you go, but the Book of Allah?

 

 

فَأَيْنَ تَذْهَبُونَ (26)

 

 

27.     Verily, this Quran is a preaching to all the creations;

 

إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ ذِكْرٌ لِلْعَالَمِينَ (27)

 

 

28.     With benefit to whoever among you wills to go the straight path of becoming Muslim;

 

لِمَنْ شَاءَ مِنْكُمْ أَنْ يَسْتَقِيمَ (28)

 

 

29.     But you shall not have a will except as Allah, the Owner of the Worlds, wills.

 

وَمَا تَشَاءُونَ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ(29)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

            Al-Hakim narrated from the route of Ibn ^Umar that the Messenger of Allah said:

<< من أحبّ أن ينظر الى يوم القيامة فليقرأ إذا الشمس كورت >>

This means:  <<The one who desires to envision the Day of Judgment let him read Surah at-Takwir.>>            Al-Hakim established the hadith as Sahih with which adh-Dhahabiyy concurred and Ahmad reported the hadith.

 

1.  ٌ{إِذَا الشَّمْسُ كُوِّرَتْ}

Ibn ^Abbas said it means:  When the sun loses its light and becomes dark. The scholars of interpretation said the sun will be gathered and wrapped and thrown into Hellfire.

 

2.  {وَإِذَا النُّجُومُ انْكَدَرَت}      

            When the stars scatter and drop and lose their light;

 

3.  {وَإِذَا الْجِبَالُ سُيِّرَتْ}        

            When the mountains are wrenched out from the earth and leveled as earth was first created without mountains or valleys.

 

4.  {وَإِذَا الْعِشَارُ عُطِّلَتْ}        

            ^Ishar (عِشَارُ) is the plural of ^ushara (عُشَرَاء) which is the she-camel ten (10) months pregnant.  She is called ^ushara until she delivers so long as her pregnancy does not exceed twelve (12) months.  Such a camel is very precious to her owners, yet they have to leave her untended, without a shepherd and without one milking her, because they are overwhelmed by other matters.   This similitude alludes to the Day of Judgment when no one pays any heed to what he used to have.^Uttilat (عُطِّلَتْ) means, ' left out and neglected due to being occupied by the dire events of the day of judgment.'

 

5.  {وَإِذَا الْوُحُوشُ حُشِرَتْ}   

            This refers to when the beasts are gathered after Resurrection.  Ibn ^Abbas said:  The beasts will be gathered on that day to take their due from one another, after which they will turn into soil.  Although the beasts are not accountable for their deeds, still this happens to elucidate the Justice of the Creator.  This ayah also carries an explicit proof that animals have souls. 

 

6.  {وَإِذَا الْبِحَارُ سُجِّرَتْ}       

            Imam Al-Bukhariyy commented in his Sahih that al-Hasan said the ayah means:  The water of the oceans will be gone, without any drop left.  ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib and Ibn ^Abbas said sujjirat (سُجّرَت) means will be lit in a blaze, as reported by al-QurtubiyyIbn Kathir and Abu ^Amr recited sujirat (سجرت) with a single jim.

 

7.  {وَإِذَا النُّفُوسُ زُوِّجَتْ}      

            Imam al-Bukhariyy narrated in his commentaries that ^Umar Ibn al-Khattab used to say about the meaning of this ayah: " the man among the people of Paradise will be wed to his equal, and the man among the people of Hellfire will be wed to his equal.  Then he recited the saying of Allah: (As-Saffat, 22)

{ احْشُرُوا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا وَأَزْوَاجَهُمْ }

This ayah  means: [Assemble those who committed iniquities along with their spouses]"

                                                                                                                                        

Hafidh Ibn Hajar said:  "This narration has a continuous Sahih chain of narration.

 Al-Hakim narrated a similar meaning from the route of ^Umar Ibn al-Khattab that he explained the meaning as:  They are the two men doing the deeds that make them enter Paradise and Hellfire, the sinner with the sinner and the pious with the pious.  Al-Hakim classified it as sahih and adh-Dhahabiyy agreed.

 

 

 

8.  {وَإِذَا الْمَوْءُودَةُ سُئِلَتْ}      

            This ayah refers to the abhorrent practice of some during the Era of Ignorance of burying the female infants born to them while they were still alive.  The man preferred to kill his own female infant out of fear that she might be disgraced if captured in a raid or sold into slavery, or out of fear of poverty.  The honorable people at the time refrained from such a practice and stopped others from doing it.  Sa^sa^ah, the grandfather of al-Farazdaq, used to buy the female infants from their fathers.  He had rescued seventy (70) of them by the time Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, renewed the call of al-Islam.

            The significance of her being asked is to severely reprimand the doer of such an abhorrent deed.

 

9.  {بِأَيِّ ذَنْبٍ قُتِلَتْ}               

            This is a narrative of the statement with which she would be addressed.  Her reply would be, I was murdered for no reason.  By this, the abhorrence of the act stands out and the murderers would be clearly exposed.  ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib, Ibn Mas^ud, Ibn ^Abbas, Abu ^Abd Ar-Rahman, Ibn Ya^mar, Ibn Abi ^Ablah and Harun from Abi ^Amr recited sa'altu

(سألت) with a fathah on the sin and an 'alif after it and recited bi'ayyi dhambin qutiltu

(قُتِِِلْت بِأَيِّ ذَنْبٍ) with a silent lam and a dammah on the ta'.

 

10.  {وَإِذَا الصُّحُفُ نُشِرَتْ}   

            Al-Qurtubiyy and al-Mawardiyy said the meaning is:  The journals in which the angels record the good and bad deeds of those concerned will be folded by death, and then laid open again on the Day of Judgment.  Then every person will stand at his journal and learn what is written in it and would say (as Allah told us in Surah al-Kahf, 49:

{مَالِ هَذَا الْكِتَابِ لا يُغَادِرُ صَغِيرَةً وَلا كَبِيرَةً إِلاَّ أَحْصَاهَا}

This means:  [This book, wondrously, does not skip counting neither a small nor an enormous matter]  Nafi^, ^Asim, Abu Ja^far, Ibn ^Amir and Ya^qub recited nushirat (نشرت) with a single shin. The rest of the scholars of recitation recited with nushshirat (نشِّرت) with a double shin.

 

11.  {وَإِذَا السَّمَاءُ كُشِطَتْ}     

            Az-Zajjaj said it means:  When the sky will be wrenched out as in wrenching out the roof of a house.  Al-kasht (الكشط) is the wrenching out of something in firm adhesion to another thing. ^Abdullah recited qushitat (قُشِطَتْ).

 

 

 

12.  {وَإِذَا الْجَحِيمُ سُعِّرَتْ}     

            At such time when the blazing fire of Hell is fervidly fueled.  As-sa^ir (السعير) is the blazing and fervor of the fire.  At-Tirmidhiyy and Ibn Majah narrated from the route of Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: 

<< أوقد على النار الف سنة حتى احمرت، ثم اوقد عليها الف سنة حتى ابيضت، ثم اوقد عليها الف سنة حتى اسودت فهى سوداء مظلمة. >>

This means:  <<The fire of the Hell was fueled for one thousand (1,000) years until it became red in color, then one-thousand (1,000) years until it became white in color, then one-thousand (1,000) years until it became black in color.  Hence, it is dark and pitch-black in color.>>  Nafi^, Ibn Dhakwan, Hafs from ^Asim recited su^^irat (سُعِّرَتْ) with a double ^ayn, others recited su^irat (سعرت) with a single ^ayn.Shu^bah recited both ways.

 

13.  {وَإِذَا الْجَنَّةُ أُزْلِفَتْ}         

            The reference here is to when Paradise will be brought closer.  Az-Zajjaj said:  The interpretation of that is when the time of their entry into and looking at Paradise becomes near.  Al-Hasan said:  They will be brought close to Paradise while it remains in its place.

 

The forthcoming ayahs are the reply statements to the first ayah {إِذَا الشَّمْسُ كُوِّرَتْ} and the ayahs joined to it by conjunction [10].

 

14.  {عَلِمَتْ نَفْسٌ مَا أَحْضَرَتْ}                                                                                      

            The term nafs (self,  نَفْسٌ) is indefinite thereby reflecting a general context.  The ayah means that every soul shall know the good deeds it brought in its journal that would admit it to Paradise or the bad deeds that would make it deserving of Hellfire, may Allah protect us.

 

15.  {فَلا أُقْسِمُ بِالْخُنَّسِ}         

            An-Nasafiyy and others said la (لا) is a linguistic additive meaning:  Verily, I swear by al-khunnas (الْخُنَّسِ).  Al-Khunnas (الخُنَّسِ) is the plural of khanisah (خانسة) and khanasa ^anhu (خنس عنه) means 'to be delayed or receded from.'  Al-Hafidh said:  Al-Bukhariyy said al-khunnas (الْخُنَّسِ) is 'to recede and conceal itself in its habitat like when the gazelles recede into their caves.'  

            Al-Farra said that the ayah is in reference to the five stars that run their course by receding in their tracks just as the gazelles recede back in their caves.  He said what is meant by the five stars is: 

'Mercury (عطارد), Venus (الزهرة), Mars المريخ) بهرام و هو), Jupiter (المشترى), Saturn      (زحل).'           

            Then al-Farra said:  "Sa^id Ibn Mansur narrated from ^Aliyy with a hasan classification that they are the planets appearing at night and receding unseen at daylight."  In his book   'Lisan Al-^Arab' he said:  "Khunusuha (خنوسها) is the receding at daylight and al-khunus (الخنوس) is to recede and conceal."

 

16.  {الْجَوَارِ الْكُنَّسِ}              

            Al-kunnas (الْكُنَّسِ) is the plural of kanis (كانس) and kanisah (كانسة).  Kanis (كانس), if attributed to a beast, means the beast entering its habitat--like the wild cows and the gazelles.  Al-jawariyy (الجوارى) are the moving planets and al-kunnas (الكنس) are those planets that set and hide. Hence, the ayah refers to the moving planets that set and hide.

 

17.  {وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا عَسْعَسَ}        

            Al-Khalil said: Allah adjured by the setting in of the night and by its disappearance.  The term ^as^as (عَسْعَسَ) is antonymic (الاضداد); such terms contain in the same word opposite meanings (like appearing and disappearing).

 

18.  {وَالصُّبْحِ إِذَا تَنَفَّسَ}        

            As-subh (الصُّبْحِ) is dawn, the beginning of daylight.  Idha tanaffas (إِذَا تَنَفَّسَ) i.e., if it's light spreads out.  This ayah contains an adjuration;  Allah adjures by the Dawn and its spread-out light.  The reply statement that shows the subject matter of the adjuration is the following ayah (#19).

 

 

 

 

 

19.  {إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ}  

            The revealed Quran, highly praised to Allah, is the utterance[11] of an honorable angel and messenger to Allah, Jibril, who came down with the revelation on all the prophets, peace be upon them

 

20.  {ذِي قُوَّةٍ عِنْدَ ذِي الْعَرْشِ مَكِينٍ}             

            Jibril is extremely empowered to carry out his assignments without weakness or powerlessness.  His strength enabled him to wrench out the villages of the people of Prophet Lut (Lot) and turn them upside down, as he was ordered.  Jibril has a very high status to Allah.

 

21.  {مُطَاعٍ ثَمَّ أَمِينٍ}              

            This ayah means Jibril is obeyed by the other angels in the skies and is entrusted with bringing the Revelation down to the prophets of Allah.  The saying of Allah, thamma (ثمَّ), refers to the skies.  Ibn Hisham said thamma (ثمَّ) with a fathah is a name reflecting the far away place.  Jibril is amin (أمين)[12] i.e., he is entrusted with bringing the Revelation down to the prophets of AllahUbayy Ibn Ka^b and Ibn Mas^ud recited thumma (ثم) with a dammah on the tha'

 

22.  {وَمَا صَاحِبُكُمْ بِمَجْنُونٍ}

            This is a conjunction to the reply statement of the adjuration in ayah 19.  It means:  O People of Makkah, unlike the lies the blasphemers fabricate, Muhammad is not insane. Rather, he is truthful and may Allah reward him greatly for what he gave his nation. Majnun (مجنون)[13] is the one subdued by Jinn or the one who suffered an ailment in his brains that veils his mind.

 

23.  {وَلَقَدْ رَآهُ بِالأفُقِ الْمُبِينِ}

            This ayah refers to that Muhammad saw Jibril in his original form having six hundred (600) wings. He saw him in the far horizon (ِالْأُفُقِ الْمُبِينِ) from where the sun rises.

 

24.  {وَمَا هُوَ عَلَى الْغَيْبِ بِضَنِينٍ}                 

            Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, is not a miser in conveying what was revealed to him.  Ibn Kathir, Abu ^Amr, and al-Kisaiyy read the term bidanin (بِضَنِينٍ) with the letter dha' (ظ) instead of dad (ض).  Read as such, it means Muhammad is neither accused of bringing forward something which was not revealed to him, nor of short-conveying any of what was revealed to him, nor of adding to what was conveyed to him.  Al-Bukhariyy said adh-dhanin (الظنين) means the accused and ad-danin (الضنين) means the miser.  Likewise it was narrated by ^Abdur-Razzaq from the route of Ibrahim an-Nakh^iyy.

 

25.  {وَمَا هُوَ بِقَوْلِ شَيْطَانٍ رَجِيمٍ}                                                                                  

            Contrary to the false claim of the blasphemers of Quraysh, the Quran is not the word of one of the devils--pelted away with meteors--uttering through the tongue of Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.  Some of the devils eavesdrop near the first sky whereupon the angels pelt them away with meteors.  Rajim (رَجِيمٍ) means marjum (مرجوم) i.e., pelted with meteors.

 

26.  {فَأَيْنَ تَذْهَبُونَ}                

            What other route would you follow but the Quran which provides the guidance and soundness?  This ayah shows that the blasphemers strayed by their fabrications about the Prophet.  One time they attributed to him insanity, another time soothsaying, and other than that.  The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, is clear of their accusations. 

 

27.  {إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ ذِكْرٌ لِلْعَالَمِينَ}                                                                                         

            An-Nasafiyy said it means the Quran is truly a preachment for the creation.

 

 

28.  {لِمَنْ شَاءَ مِنْكُمْ أَنْ يَسْتَقِيمَ}                      

            The Quran is a preachment for those who willed to follow the Straight Path by embracing Islam and they will indeed benefit from it.  As for those who do not embrace Islam, they do not benefit from the Quran.

 

Then in the following ayah, Allah elucidated that the slaves will of embracing Islam, and thus being on the straight path, is only by the Will of Allah.

 

29.  {وَمَا تَشَاءُونَ إِلا أَنْ يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ}      

            You shall not will for yourselves to be on the Straight Path by embracing Islam unless Allah willed that for you eternally.  Allah made it known that their being guided to the good ending is only by and in accordance with the Will of Allah.  In the ayah, Allah mentioned specifically ones will to follow the Straight Pathand not ones will to go astray to elucidate the honor of the belief.

            Al-Qurtubiyy said: Allah showed in this ayah that the good the slave does is by the Will of Allah in order to benefit him, and the evil the slave commits is by the Will of Allah in order to deprive him.  Allah said in Surah al-An^am, 111:

{وَلَوْ أَنَّنَا نَزَّلْنَا إِلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ وَكَلَّمَهُمُ الْمَوْتَى وَحَشَرْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ قُبُلا مَا كَانُوا لِيُؤْمِنُوا إِلا أَنْ يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ }

This ayah means:  [Even if Allah sends the angels to them and the dead speak to them and Allah assemble everything in front of their own eyes, they still would not believe unless Allah willed for them to believe.  And Allah said in Surah Yunus, 100:

{ وَمَا كَانَ لِنَفْسٍ أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ إِلا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ }

This ayah  means:  [No soul can believe except by the Will of Allah.]  Allah said in Surah al-Qasas, 56:

{ إِنَّكَ لا تَهْدِي مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ }

This ayah  means:  [O Muhammad, you will not be able to guide whomever you love, but Allah guides whomever He wills.]  There are many other verses and religious reports showing that Allah guides one by Islam and misguides one by blasphemy. (End of Qurtubiyy's saying.)

            Allah is rubbul-^alamin (رب العالمين) i.e., the Owner of all the creatures and their deeds.  By precedence He is the Creator of their deeds.  Allah said in  Surah as-Saffat, 96:

{ وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمْ وَمَا تَعْمَلُونَ }

This ayah  means:  [Allah has created you and your doings.]

            The Messenger of Allah said:

<< إن الله تعالى صانع كل صانع وصنعتة >>

This means:  <<Indeed, Allah has created every doer and his doing.>>  Narrated by al-Bayhaqiyy, al-Hakim, and Ibn HibbanAllah said in Surah al-An^am, 110:

{ وَنُقَلِّبُ أَفْئِدَتَهُمْ وَأَبْصَارَهُمْ }

This ayah  means:  [We (Allah) shall change their hearts and turn their sights.] 

            The fact that Allah controls and changes the hearts of the slaves clearly indicates that Allah is the Creator of the actions of the hearts. Likewise, the fact that Allah controls and turns the sights of the slaves clearly indicates that Allah is the Creator of the doings of the extremities and other external body organs. 

            Praise be to Allah, the One Who guides whomever He willed out of His generosity and makes misguided whomever He willed out of His justice.  Hence, the one who attributes the ultimate will to the slaves and not to the Creator, who is the Owner of the slaves, is undoubtedly a misguided blasphemer. 

            Muslim narrated that the blasphemers came to debate with the Messenger about the Destining of Allah, so Allah revealed in Surah al-Qamar, ayahs 47, 48, and 49:

{ إِنَّ الْمُجْرِمِينَ فِي ضَلالٍ وَسُعُرٍ(47)يَوْمَ يُسْحَبُونَ فِي النَّارِ عَلَى وُجُوهِهِمْ ذُوقُوا مَسَّ سَقَرَ(48)إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ(49)}

These ayahs mean:  [The blasphemers are in a state of misguidance and madness (47).  On the Day of Judgment they will be dragged through the fire of Hell on their faces and will be told to taste the touch of Hell (48).  Verily, We (Allah) have created all things in accordance with (Allahs) Decree (49).]

            Those who say the slave creates his own actions are blasphemers by the evidence of the Quran, the Sunnah, and the unanimous agreement of the salaf and khalaf.  The sayings of those who oppose them do not have any consideration due to the following confirmed saying of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, narrated by Abu Dawud:

<< القدرية مجوس هذه الأمة >>

This means:  <<Those who deny the Destining of Allah are the Majus of this nation.>>

            Al-Lalakaiyy and al-Bayhaqiyy narrated about many of the scholars of the salaf that they pronounced those who deny the Destining of Allah as blasphemers.  Among such scholars were the companions, ^Abdullah Ibn ^Abbas and ^Abdullah Ibn ^Umar, as well as a number of the followers of the Companions and their followers.  The two great imams, Imam Malik and Imam ash-Shafi^iyy explicitly stated that this is a case of blasphemy.  Henceforth, it is not permissible to doubt in the blasphemy of the one who says the slave creates his own actions, for, may Allah protect us, they are belying the saying of Allah in Surah ar-Ra^d, 16   { قُلِ اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ }and Surah as-Saffat, 96:   { وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمْ وَمَا تَعْمَلُونَ }Surah ar-Ra^d, 16 means:  [Say, Allah is the Creator of all things.]  Surah as-Saffat, 96 means:  [Verily, Allah created you and your doings.]

            Ibn Jarir and others reported that when{لِمَنْ شَاءَ مِنْكُمْ أَنْ يَسْتَقِيمَ} was revealed Abu Jahl said, 'we are meant by this ayah, if we willed to, we follow the Straight Path, and if we willed not to, we do not follow it.' So Allah revealed {وَمَا تَشَاءُونَ إِلا أَنْ يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ}.

Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, Abu Al-Mutawakkil and Abu ^Imran recited wa ma yasha'un ( يشاءون) with a ya'.


SURAH AL-INFITAR                                                                سورة الانفطار

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of nineteen (19) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

 

 

1.       When the sky is cleft asunder;

 

إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انْفَطَرَتْ (1)

 

 

2.       When the stars fall off their positions;

 

وَإِذَا الْكَوَاكِبُ انْتَثَرَتْ (2)

 

 

3.       When the oceans are flooded;

 

وَإِذَا الْبِحَارُ فُجِّرَتْ (3)

 

 

4.       When the graves are turned inside out and upside down;

 

وَإِذَا الْقُبُورُ بُعْثِرَتْ (4)

 

 

5.       Then shall every soul learn what obedience it has sent forward and what right of Allah it has kept back.

 

عَلِمَتْ نَفْسٌ مَا قَدَّمَتْ وَأَخَّرَتْ (5)

 

 

6.       O blasphemer man!  What has seduced and cheated you to turn away from your generous Lord?

 

يَاأَيُّهَا الإِنْسَانُ مَا غَرَّكَ بِرَبِّكَ الْكَرِيمِ (6)

 

 

7.       The One Who created you--fashioned you proportionately and harmoniously;

 

الَّذِي خَلَقَكَ فَسَوَّاكَ فَعَدَلَكَ (7)

 

 

8.       Your Lord has created you in the form conforming to His Eternal Will.

 

فِي أَيِّ صُورَةٍ مَا شَاءَ رَكَّبَكَ (8)

 

 

9.       No!  But you indeed deny the Day of Judgment!

 

كَلا بَلْ تُكَذِّبُونَ بِالدِّينِ (9)

 

 

10.     Appointed over you are angels who document your doings and sayings,

 

وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ (10)

 

 

11.     Generously honorable angels that write down your deeds.

 

كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ (11)

 

 

12.     They know all your doings, evil or good.

يَعْلَمُونَ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ (12)

 

 

13.     As for the meritorious they are in a bliss.

 

إِنَّ الْأَبْرَارَ لَفِي نَعِيمٍ (13)

 

 

14.     And the doers of iniquities (blasphemers) shall be in the fire of Hell,

 

وَإِنَّ الْفُجَّارَ لَفِي جَحِيمٍ (14)

 

 

15.     Which they will enter and suffer on the Day of Judgment,

 

يَصْلَوْنَهَا يَوْمَ الدِّينِ (15)

 

 

16.     And from there they will not be able to leave.

 

وَمَا هُمْ عَنْهَا بِغَائِبِينَ (16)

 

 

17.     O what will explain to you the extent of the Day of Judgment?

 

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ (17)

 

 

18.     Again, what will explain to you the extent of the Day of Judgment?

 

ثُمَّ مَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ (18)

 

 

19.     The Day when no soul shall be able to do aught for another. For the entire matter, that day, will be with Allah.

 

يَوْمَ لا تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِنَفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَالأَمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلَّهِ (19)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

1.  {إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انْفَطَرَتْ}        

            Al-Farra said:  The infitar (انفطار) of the sky is its clefting asunder.  This refers to the Day when the sky will split apart with crevices.

 

2.  {وَإِذَا الْكَوَاكِبُ انْتَثَرَتْ}

            And when the stars drop off from their positions.

 

3.  {وَإِذَا الْبِحَارُ فُجِّرَتْ}        

            Ar-Rabi^ Ibn Khathim said fujjirat (فُجِّرَتْ) means flooded.  Al-Bukhariyy narrated this and commented by saying:  The Hafidh said in his book Al-Fath:  What is copied from the sayings of ar-Rabi^ is that fujirat (فُجرَتْ) with a single (ج) befits this aforementioned interpretation.  The meaning then is 'and when the oceans are flooded.

 

4.  {وَإِذَا الْقُبُورُ بُعْثِرَتْ}        

            On the Day when the graves shall be agitated, turned inside out and upside down, split open and the dead shall be resurrected and quickened.

 

5.  {عَلِمَتْ نَفْسٌ مَا قَدَّمَتْ وَأَخَّرَتْ}

            This ayah is the reply statement for the previous four ayahs. It predicates, when the aforementioned matters happen, every soul shall learn about the obedience it had performed and sent forward, and about the right of Allah one had not fulfilled and thus kept one behind deserving the punishment of Allah.  This meaning was mentioned by Ibn ^Abbas.

 

6.  {يَاأَيُّهَا الإِنْسَانُ مَا غَرَّكَ بِرَبِّكَ الْكَرِيمِ}      

            What is meant by al-insan (الإِنْسَانُ) here specifically is the blasphemer human being. It was said it was revealed about 'Ubayy Ibn Khalaf.  The ayah addresses the blasphemers by asking,  "What has seduced you, i.e., drawn you away and cheated you to the extent that you have blasphemed and disbelieved in your generous Lord Who bestowed upon you a variety of endowments?"  Seduction here refers to the matters that seduce man such as money, prestige, desires, and devils.  Al-Baydawiyy said "The answer to the question, What has seduced you? is the devil." 

            Al-Karim (الْكَرِيمِ) is one of the names of Allah meaning He is the Forgiving One Who does not punish the sinner shortly after he errs.  Allah mentioned His name, Al-Karim, here to emphasize to the blasphemer the importance of refraining from being seduced away from Allah, before the punishment eventually befalls him.  That Allah is Al-Karim does not mean the blasphemer will be forgiven or will be treated as an equal to the obedient person.  Rather, if he does not repent from his blasphemy, he will be severely punished.  This becomes especially clear when one remembers the attributes of Allah of al-Qahr (القهر), 'subjugating His slaves', and al-Intiqam (الانتقام), 'justly punishing those who deserve to be punished.'  One must not listen should the devil whisper to him, Do as you like, for your Lord is Karim and does not punish anyone. 

           

            Muhammad Ibn Sabih Ibn as-Sammak, the ascetic role model, said in his poetry:

يا كاتم الذنب اما تستحى                 والله فى الحلوة رائيكا

غرَّك من ربك امهاله                     وستره طول مساويكا

This means: O you who is concealing the sin, are you not ashamed?  For Allah sees you even when you are alone. You have blurred yourself, by the fact that Allah allowed you some time so you may repent before punishing you, as well as by the fact that Allah has not uncovered the long history of your sins.

            Dhun-Nun al-Misriyy said:  "Many of those are unknowingly seduced because Allah has not uncovered their sins."  May Allah forgive us and cover our sins in this life and in the Hereafter, Amin. 

 

7.  {الَّذِي خَلَقَكَ فَسَوَّاكَ فَعَدَلَكَ}                      

            Your Lord is the One Who destined that you be created from a sperm-drop.  He made your body parts harmonious, without any disproportion.  He made them sound, enabling them to perform their functions.  Thus, He did not make one hand longer than the other, one eye wider than the other, or some body parts black and others white.

            Al-Bukhariyy said:  Al-A^mash and ^Asim recited fa^adalak (فَعَدَلَكَ)[14] with a single  dal (د).  However, the people of al-Hijaz recited it with a doubled dal (دّ).  The first recitation means Allah created you in conformity with the form He eternally Willed--whether beautiful, ugly, tall, or short.  The second recitation means harmoniously created. 

            It is mentioned in Al-Fath: "The summary of both recitations is that the one with the doubled dal (دّ) means harmoniously created, and the one with the single dal (د)[15] means created you with whatever attribute He willed for you."

 

8.  {فِي أَيِّ صُورَةٍ مَا شَاءَ رَكَّبَكَ}                 

            Your Lord is the One Who created you with some attributes among the various attributes, in conformity to His eternal Will.  The qualities a person has whether tall or short, male or female, resembling his kin or not, was willed for him by Allah in eternity.

 

9.  {كَلا بَلْ تُكَذِّبُونَ بِالدِّينِ}    

            After Allah elucidated--by the intellectual proofs--the truthfulness of the Resurrection and Assembly, Allah stated some ramifications.  Kalla  ( كَلا )in this verse severely reprimands the blasphemers for being seduced by the devil away from the generosity of Allah.  The part of the ayah (بَلْ تُكَذِّبُونَ بِالدِّينِ) confirms that the blasphemers deny the Day of Judgment and claim it will not take place.  Abu Ja^far recited bal yukadhdhibuna (يكذبون بَلْ) with a ya'.

 

 

10.  {وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ}    

            Then Allah informed the blasphemers that the record of their deeds is kept.  Among the angels are those who record their doings and sayings.

 

11.  {كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ}               

            These angels are greatly honored to Allah.  They record the doings of the slaves.  Moreover, what goes on in peoples hearts Allah makes known to them. The angels record accordingly, so that the people may also be judged for what is in their hearts.  Aggrandizing the angels in this verse signifies the importance of the Day of Judgment.

 

12.  {يَعْلَمُونَ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ}       

            Nothing of your doings, whether good or evil, will be concealed from these angels and they will record it all.

 

13.  {إِنَّ الأبْرَارَ لَفِي نَعِيمٍ}     

            Al-birr (البرّ) with a kasrah is 'the goodness and merit.'  Al-abrar (الأبرار) is the plural of al-barr (البار) who is 'the doer of goodness and merit.'  Ar-Raghib-al-Asbahaniyy said:  When al-birr (البرّ) is attributed to the slave towards his Lord, it refers to the slaves exaggeration in being obedient to his Lord.  When attributed to Allah, it means bestowing reward on the slave.  Al-birr (البرّ) is of two kinds, one pertains to the creed and the other to the acts of worship. Both are elucidated in the saying of Allah in Surah al-Baqarah, Ayah 177:

{لَيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَنْ تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ ءَامَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَالْمَلائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَءَاتَى الْمَالَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلاةَ وَءَاتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ}

This ayah means:  [It is not meritorious that you turn your faces--without being believers--towards East or West; but it is meritorious to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your money that you love, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the slaves to pay for their freedom; to be steadfast in prayer, and to pay Az-Zakat; to fulfill the contracts which you have made; and to be patient, in financial and physical adversities, and throughout warring periods. Such are the people of truth, the God-fearing ones.]

            This ayah includes matters pertaining to the belief, obligatory actions, and supererogatory acts of worship.  For the true believers who are God-fearing in this life, the enjoyment is through obedience to Allah, and accepting the Destining of Allah, and feeling content by it.  Their enjoyment in the Hereafter shall be Paradise.

 

14.  {وَإِنَّ الْفُجَّارَ لَفِي جَحِيمٍ}

            Al-fujjar (الْفُجَّارَ) is the plural of fajir (فاجر) and the infinitive form is al-fujur (الفجور).  Ar-Raghib al-Asbahani defined al-fujur as clefting the cover of the Religion. The blasphemers are the ones meant here.  The punishment for their ill-doings shall be dwelling in the fervor of Hellfire.

 

15.  {يَصْلَوْنَهَا يَوْمَ الدِّينِ}      

            On the Day of Judgment (the day of reward and/or punishment for ones deeds), the blasphemers shall enter Hell and suffer from its fervor.

 

16.  {وَمَا هُمْ عَنْهَا بِغَائِبِينَ}    

            Once they enter Hell, they (the blasphemers) will never depart from it.  By that, the promise and threat of punishing the blasphemers with everlasting torture in Hellfire will be fulfilled.

 

17.  {وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ}                                         

            Ar-Raziyy said:  The scholars hold different opinions regarding the addressee.  Some said the blasphemer is the one addressed in this ayah, in order to severely reprimand him.  The majority, including al-Baydawiyy, said the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, is the one addressed to reflect that no one--including the Prophet--knows the extent of Hellfire, and to make the people more in awe of the Day of Judgment.

 

18.  {ثُمَّ مَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ}                                       

            The words of ayah 17 were repeated again in this ayah to enhance in our minds the seriousness and importance of the Judgment Day.

 

19.  {يَوْمَ لا تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِنَفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَالأَمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلَّهِ}             

            On that day, no creature shall be able to benefit another in the least with the exception of the intercession that takes place by the Will of Allah.  No blasphemous soul will be able to benefit any other blasphemous soul.  The entire matter will be with Allah on that day and no one can contend.  In this ayah there is an indication that Allah is attributed with Existence and Everlastingness.  His attributes are eternal and everlasting by virtue of the Eternity and the Everlastingness of Allahs Self[16]Allah is clear of change because changing from one state to another is an attribute of the creations.  Allah is clear from any of the creations attributes. Dhun-Nun al Misriyy said:  Whatever you imagine in your mind, Allah is different from It. i.e., Allah is not similar to it.

Ibn Kathir and Abu ^Amr recited yawmu (يَوْمُ) with a dammah on the mim[17]. The rest recited it with a fathah on the mim[18].

 


SURAH AL-MUTAFFIFIN                                                   سورة المطففين

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of thirty-six (36) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

 

 

1.       Woe to those stinting when weighing or measuring out goods.

 

وَيْلٌ لِلْمُطَفِّفِينَ (1)

 

 

2.       Those who, when they receive by measure from people, are keen to receive full measure,

 

الَّذِينَ إِذَا اكْتَالُوا عَلَى النَّاسِ يَسْتَوْفُونَ (2)

 

 

3.       But when they give by measure or weight to people, give less than what is due.

 

وَإِذَا كَالُوهُمْ أَوْ وَزَنُوهُمْ يُخْسِرُونَ (3)

 

 

4.       Do they not think they will be resurrected,

 

أَلا يَظُنُّ أُولَئِكَ أَنَّهُمْ مَبْعُوثُونَ (4)

 

 

5.       On a day of great importance?

 

لِيَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ (5)

 

 

6.       The Day of Judgment when all mankind shall rise to be judged by the Lord of the Worlds?

 

يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (6)

 

 

7.       Nay, surely the book of the blasphemers is incarcerated in Sijjin.

 

كَلا إِنَّ كِتَابَ الْفُجَّارِ لَفِي سِجِّين ٍ(7)

 

 

8.       And what makes you know what Sijjin is?

 

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا سِجِّينٌ (8)

 

 

9.       The book of the blasphemers is fully inscribed.

 

كِتَابٌ مَرْقُومٌ (9)

 

 

10.     Severe punishment that Day to those who deny,

 

وَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلْمُكَذِّبِينَ (10)

 

 

11.     Those who deny the Day of Judgment.

 

الَّذِينَ يُكَذِّبُونَ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ (11)

 

 

12.     And none deny it except every transgressor beyond bounds, the blasphemer!

 

وَمَا يُكَذِّبُ بِهِ إِلا كُلُّ مُعْتَدٍ أَثِيمٍ (12)

 

 

13.     When our ayahs are recited to him, he says, Tales of the Ancients!

 

إِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِ ءَايَاتُنَا قَالَ أَسَاطِيرُ الأَوَّلِينَ (13)

 

 

14.     Nay, but their hearts are rusted with the sins they do!

 

كَلا بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ (14)

 

 

15.     Verily, that Day, they shall be veiled from seeing their Lord.

 

كَلا إِنَّهُمْ عَنْ رَبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَمَحْجُوبُونَ (15)

 

 

16.     Thereafter, they [the blasphemers] will enter the Fire of Hell.

 

ثُمَّ إِنَّهُمْ لَصَالُو الْجَحِيمِ (16)

 

 

17.     Further, the angels will tell the blasphemers, This is the torture you denied!

 

ثُمَّ يُقَالُ هَذَا الَّذِي كُنْتُمْ بِهِ تُكَذِّبُونَ (17)

 

 

18.     Nay, verily the Book of the meritorious is in ^Illiyyin (Paradise).

 

كَلا إِنَّ كِتَابَ الأَبْرَارِ لَفِي عِلِّيِّينَ (18)

 

 

19.     And what makes you know what ^Illiyyin is?

 

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا عِلِّيُّونَ (19)

 

 

20.     The Book of the Meritorious is fully inscribed,

 

كِتَابٌ مَرْقُومٌ (20)

 

 

21.     To which bear witness the elite angels from every sky.

 

يَشْهَدُهُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ (21)

 

 

22.     Truly the meritorious will be in a bliss,

 

إِنَّ الأَبْرَارَ لَفِي نَعِيمٍ (22)

 

 

23.     On raised couches looking at what Allah bestowed upon them.

 

عَلَى الأَرَائِكِ يَنْظُرُونَ (23)

 

 

24.    You will recognize in their faces the glistening of bliss,

 

تَعْرِفُ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ نَضْرَةَ النَّعِيمِ (24)

 

 

25.  From the purest sealed non-intoxicating wine they shall drink,

 

 

يُسْقَوْنَ مِنْ رَحِيقٍ مَخْتُومٍ (25)

 

 

26.     Sealed with musk, and for this let the aspirants aspire,

 

خِتَامُهُ مِسْكٌ وَفِي ذَلِكَ فَلْيَتَنَافَسِ الْمُتَنَافِسُونَ (26)

 

 

27.     Mixed with it a drink from Tasnim:

 

وَمِزَاجُهُ مِنْ تَسْنِيمٍ (27)

 

 

28.     A spring in Paradise, from which shall drink the best and the meritorious.

 

عَيْنًا يَشْرَبُ بِهَا الْمُقَرَّبُونَ (28)

 

 

29.     Those who blasphemed used to laugh at those who believed,

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُوا كَانُوا مِنَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا يَضْحَكُونَ (29)

 

 

30.     And whenever they passed them by, they winked at one another in mockery;

 

وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِهِمْ يَتَغَامَزُونَ (30)

 

 

31.     And when they returned to their families, they returned in a jest;

 

وَإِذَا انْقَلَبُوا إِلَى أَهْلِهِمُ انْقَلَبُوا فَكِهِينَ (31)

 

 

32.     And whenever they saw the believers, they would say, These are the people truly astray!

 

وَإِذَا رَأَوْهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّ هَؤُلاءِ لَضَالُّونَ (32)

 

 

33.     But, they had not been sent as record keepers of the believers deeds!

 

وَمَا أُرْسِلُوا عَلَيْهِمْ حَافِظِينَ (33)

 

 

34.     Indeed, on this Day the believers will reciprocate and laugh at the blasphemers,

 

فَالْيَوْمَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا مِنَ الْكُفَّارِ يَضْحَكُونَ (34)

 

 

35.     They will be raised on couches in Paradise watching the blasphemers in castigation.

 

عَلَى الأَرَائِكِ يَنْظُرُونَ (35)

 

 

36.     By rewarding the believers on this Day of Judgment, will have not the blasphemers been paid back for their mockery of the believers?

 

هَلْ ثُوِّبَ الْكُفَّارُ مَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ(36)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
THE EXPLANATION

 

            Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in his book Al-FathIbn Majah and an-Nasaiyy reported in a sahih chain from the route of Ibn ^Abbas that he said when the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, came to Madinah, its people were most devious in measurements.  Allah revealed waylul-lilmutaffifin (وَيْلٌ لِلْمُطَفِّفِينَ) and thereafter they became good with their measurements.

 

1.  {وَيْلٌ لِلْمُطَفِّفِينَ}    

Ar-Raghib al-Asbahani mentioned in his book Al-Mufradat: "Al-Asma^i noted that wayl (وَيْل) is 'repugnance.'  As to those who said wayl (وَيْل) is a valley in Hell, they did not mean the terms actual linguistic definition was 'a valley in Hell.'   Rather, the intended meaning was whomever Allah threatened by al-wayl (الوَيْل) deserves a place in Hellfire and will indeed experience it."  At-Tirmidhiyy reported the hadith:

>>الويل واد فى جهنم يهوى فيه الكافر اربعين خريفا قبل ان يبلغ قعره<<

This means:  << Al-wayl (الوَيْل) is a valley in Hell in which the blasphemer shall fall forty (40) years before he reaches its bottom.>At-Tirmidhiyy said: " this hadith is gharib[19] and I recognize it as marfu^[20] only from the route of Ibn Lahi^ah."  Ibn Lahi^ah was an extremely weak narrator even before his books got burnt, as ^Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Mahdiyy and Yahya Ibn Ma^in reported.  The linguists said al-mutaffif (المُطَفِّف) is derived from at-tafif (الطَفِيف) meaning what is little.  Hence, al-mutaffif (المُطَفِّف) is the one who cheats others out of their due in measuring and weighing.  Al-mutaffifun (المُطَفِّفُون) is the plural of al-mutaffif (المُطَفِّف).  Therefore, the ayah means: Those who cheat others out of their due in measuring and weighing deserve punishment in Hellfire, and they shall experience it.

 

2.  {الَّذِينَ إِذَا اكْتَالُوا عَلَى النَّاسِ يَسْتَوْفُونَ}    

            They are the ones who make sure to receive from people the full measure due to them. 

 

3.  {وَإِذَا كَالُوهُمْ أَوْ وَزَنُوهُمْ يُخْسِرُونَ}          

            Among their attributes is that when they give by measure or weight to people, they give less than what is due.

 

4.  {أَلا يَظُنُّ أُولَئِكَ أَنَّهُمْ مَبْعُوثُونَ}                 

The meaning is that as if they do not know with certainty that they shall be resurrected and judged for this ill-practice.  An-Nasafiyy said:  The interrogative hamzah (ء) was added to the lam alif (لا), an article of absolute negation, as a reprimand.  The ayah entails severe denouncing and amazement at their daringness to short-change others. The interpreters said adhdhann (الظن) in the ayah means, ' knowledge and certainty.'

 

5.  {لِيَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ}                     

They shall be resurrected on a day of grand importance--the Day of Judgment.

 

6.  {يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ}                

            On the Day of Judgment the people shall rise from their graves at the command of Allah and face what they deserve of reward and/or punishment. We ask Allah out of His generosity and mercy to forgive us and to conceal our ill doingsAl-Bukhariyy narrated in his Sahih from the route of ^Abdullah Ibn ^Umar that the Prophet said: 

<< يوم يقوم الناس لرب العالمين (6) حتى يغيب احدهم فى رشحه الى انصاف اذنيه >>

<< On that Day (mentioned in ayah 6) the people shall rise for judgment until one is covered in his own sweat up to the middle of his ears.>>  That is., he will drown in a pool, mid-ear high, of his own sweat.

 

7.  {كَلا إِنَّ كِتَابَ الْفُجَّارِ لَفِي سِجِّين}             

              The word kalla (كلا) reflects a strong order to refrain from stinting in weighing and measuring under the threat of punishment.  It was also said to mean Verily.  The book of the doers of iniquities, i.e., the journals in which their deeds are recorded, shall be in Sijjin. Az-Zabidiyy, in his book Taj Al-^Arus, said:  "Sijjin contains the book of the doers of iniquities.  Ibn ^Abbas reported Sijjin contains their journals as reported in as-SahahAbu ^Ubaydah said Sijjin has the grammatical structure of fi^^il (فِعّيل) and its root is Sijn (سجن) or the prison.  Similar to that is Fissiq (فسّيق), the root of which is Fisq (فِسق).  It was said Sijjin is a valley in Hell, may Allah protect usAl-Baydawiyy certified that Sijjin is Hell itself.  Ibn al-Athir said: 'Sijjin is a name for the Fire of Hell.'  Ar-Raghib al-Asbahaniyy said Sijjin is a name for Hell which corresponds to that ^Illiyyin is a name for Paradise.

 

8.  {وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا سِجِّينٌ}      

            This ayah intensifies the matter of Sijjin to accentuate the feeling of fear from it.

 

9.  {كِتَابٌ مَرْقُومٌ}

            It means a 'written book', and it was said that it means a 'sealed book'.  An-Nasafiyy said:  The book is a comprehensive book--a record of evil; in it the deeds of the devils and blasphemers among the jinns and humans are written.  As mentioned before, this book is imprisoned in Sijjin which is an indication of the low status of the blasphemers, the meanness of their deeds, and Allahs degradation of them.  Ar-Raziyy said: 

            Allah told us that the book (of the doers of iniquities) is in Sijjin and then explained Sijjin by being a written book.  It is as if it was said their book is in a written book; so what does that mean?  Imam Abu Bakr ash-Shashiyy al-Qaffal al-Kabir answered:  The saying of Allah

{كِتَابٌ مَرْقُومٌ} is not an explanation of Sijjin.  Rather, the inherent meaning is:  Nay, verily the book of the doers of iniquities is in Sijjin and it is a written book.  Hence, this attributes two attributes to the book of the doers of iniquities--that it is in Sijjin and that it is written. The saying of Allah in ayah (8) (وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا سِجِّينٌ) came in-between the two attributes and Allah knows best.

 

10.  {وَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلْمُكَذِّبِينَ}     

            Those who belie shall face severe punishment.

 

11.  {الَّذِينَ يُكَذِّبُونَ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ}                                        

            That is those who deny the Day of Judgment.

 

12.  {وَمَا يُكَذِّبُ بِهِ إِلا كُلُّ مُعْتَدٍ أَثِيمٍ}             

            Only those who exceed the bounds are th