PREFACE

 

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, Who honored the nation of Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, with the Glorious Quran and protected it from perversion. We humbly ask Allah to raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, whom Allah sent to call the people and the jinn to the Correct Path.  We ask Allah to raise the rank of the kind Al [1] and Companions of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, and to protect his nation from what he fears for them.

           

The Science of Tafsir (^Ilm at-Tafsir), which is the knowledge of the interpretation of the Quran, is an honorable knowledge with which one is enabled to comprehend the precious meanings of the Glorious Quran.  The Science of Tafsir leads to the proper deduction of the religious judgments contained in the Quran and to the benefit of taking lessons from the stories narrated therein.  Moreover, this science explains the reasons behind the revelation of its verses (ayahs), addresses subjects such as whether the verses were revealed in Makkah (Makkiyyan) or in al-Madinah (Madiniyyan), whether they have one clear meaning (muhkam) or have more than one meaning and require a proper deduction of an appropriate meaning (mutashabih), abrogating (nasikh) or abrogated (mansukh), specific (khas) or general (^am), and whether they contain a threat of castigation (wa^id) or a promise of reward (wa^d), and many other benefits.

           

The honor of the Science of Tafsir is grand and the reward of spreading it is magnificent. We have attempted to translate into the English language the interpretation of the Thirtieth (30th) part of the Quran (Juz ^Amma) and the Opening Chapter (Surah al-Fatihah).  We relied in our endeavor on precious books of interpretation in the Arabic language. One of which is Al-Bahr Al-Muhit, authored by Ibn Hayyan Al-Andalusiyy. Another text is one of the most competent and reliable interpretation that was compiled by the Research Division of the Association of Islamic Charitable Projects and is entitled AD-DURR AL-MASUN FI TAFSIR JUZ ^AMMA YATASALUN.

           

We named this book " The Jeweled Interpretation of the Thirtieth Part of the Glorious Qur'an (Juz' ^Amma) and Surah al-Fatihah."

 

We ask Allah to make our endeavor sincere and acceptable, of widespread benefit, and a reason for our expeditious passage over Assirat [2]and salvation in the Hereafter.


 

INTRODUCTION

 

            It is Islamically unlawful to translate the ayahs of the Quran word for word into other languages.  Allah said:  { } (Surah Taha, 113).  This ayah means:  [We have revealed the Quran in the Arabic language.]  In another ayah, Allah informed us that the Quran was revealed in an explicit Arabic mother tongue. This meaning is explicit in the saying of Allah{ } (Surah ash-Shu^ara, 195).  Moreover, the richness contained in the vocabulary of the Arabic language is non-existent in other languages.  For instance, the Arabic word qur' ( (may refer to the menstrual period and/or to the cleanliness period of the woman.

 

            Allah revealed many Holy Books to His Prophets.  Shaykh Shamsud-Din ar-Ramliyy mentioned in his book, Nihayat Al-Muhtaj Fi Sharhil-Minhaj, that these Books numbered one hundred and four (104).  Fifty (50) of these were revealed to Prophet Shith (Seth), thirty (30) to Prophet Idris (Enoch), ten (10) to Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), and ten (10), other than the Torah, to Prophet Musa (Moses).  The last four (4) revealed Holy Books were:

 

1.      The Torah, revealed in the Hebrew language to Prophet Musa (Moses)

2.      The Zabur, revealed in the Hebrew language to Prophet Dawud (David)

3.      The Injil, revealed in the Syriac language to Prophet ^Isa (Jesus)

4.      The Quran, revealed in the Arabic language to Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.

 

Of these books, the Quran is the only Holy Book which remains intact and unchanged to this day.  It is the lasting miracle revealed to Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, which Allah protected from being perverted.

 

The complaints of non-Arabic speaking Muslims at large emanate mainly from the absence of reliable interpretations of the Quran in their own respective mother tongues.  Sadly, most of the available translations are unsatisfactory and dangerous, because the methodologies used in producing these translations deviate from what is permissible under the rules of the Religion. 

 

Because the Quran was specifically revealed in the Arabic language does not mean it is meant only for Arabic speaking people to read and understand.  On the contrary, Islam, the religion of all the prophets, is pronounced the only true religion for all people[3]; therefore its terms and teachings must also be attainable by non-Arabic speaking people.  The religious prohibition is in translating the verses of the Quran word for word and claiming these are the expressions revealed by Allah to Prophet Muhammad , sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.  What is permissible, however, is to explain the meanings of the verses of the Qur'an in other languages.

 

Interpreting the meanings of the Qur'an require qualified scholars who have the necessary scholastic tools. Many renowned scholars of interpretation have authored precious books. Ibn Hayyan Al-Andalusiyy, for example, authored Al-Bahr Al-Muhit, a text that Muslim scholars hold as highly reputable and credible. Translating similar works constitutes a proper methodology of spreading the meanings of the Glorious Qur'an into other languages.

 

The overall layout of this book consists of giving a general interpretation of the meanings of each individual verse (ayah) in table form, with the English interpretation in the left column and the corresponding verse in Arabic in the right column.  A more detailed interpretation of each verse follows the table format in the body of the book.  Transliterated words are italicized and the following transliteration system has been adopted for this work:

 


 

 

Transliteration System

English

Arabic

 

English

Arabic

 

T

B

 

DH

T

 

^

TH

 

GH

J

 

F

H

 

Q

KH

 

K

D

 

L

DH

 

M

R

 

N

Z

 

H

S

 

W

SH

 

Y

S

 

A

D

 

A

 

To represent the fathah

a after the letter

 

To represent the dammah

u after the letter

 

To represent the kasrah

i after the letter

 

To represent the mad by an alif

a after the letter

 

To represent the mad by a waw

u after the letter

 

To represent the mad by a ya

i after the letter

 

To represent the shaddah

the letter is doubled

 

 


THE ISTI^ADHAH                                                                                  

 

(A^udhu billahi minash-shaytanir-rajim)

(I seek Allahs protection from the harm of the deprived and expelled Devil.)

 

The meaning of the isti^adhah is:  I seek the protection of Allah to preserve me against the harm of Satan, who is a deviant and transgressing blasphemer among the jinn.

 

By scholarly consensus, the isti^adhah, or seeking Allahs protection from the devil, is not a part of the Quran.  However, the saying of most of the scholars (jumhur) is that it is liked for one to begin with the isti^adhah before starting to recite the Quran.  It was mentioned by some that one says the isti^adhah after finishing reciting the Quran relying on the saying of Allah in Surah an-Nahl, 98:

{ }

However, the jumhur said that the meaning of this ayah is:  [If you want to recite the Quran start with the isti^adhah].  The same technique is used in the hadith of the Prophet , sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, narrated by al-Humaydiyy and at-Tabaraniyy:  << >> which means:  <<If you want to eat, start by mentioning the name of Allah.>>

 

Ar-rajim () means the one who is deprived from any goodness, or the one who is expelled and degraded.

 

 


SURAH AL-FATIHAH                                                              

Makkiyyan.

Comprised of seven (7) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

1. I start with the name of Allah, Who is ar-Rahman and ar-Rahim.

 

(1)

 

2. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds,

 

(2)

 

3. Who is ar-Rahman and ar-Rahim,

 

(3)

 

4. The Owner of the Day of Judgment.

 

(4)

 

5. We worship You and seek Your aid.

 

(5)

 

6. Keep us guided on the Straight Path,

 

(6)

 

7. The path of those on whom You have bestowed the Correct Religion; The path of those whose share is not punishment, and the path of those who are not astray.

 

(7)

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

1.  } {                       

          This verse (ayah) is called 'the basmalah.'  According to Imam ash-Shafi^iyy the basmalah is one of the verses (ayahs) of the Fatihah without which the prayer is invalid.  Imam Malik and Imam Abu Hanifah do not consider the basmalah to be a verse (ayah) of the Fatihah.  Every chapter (surah) of the Quran starts with the basmalah except for one, Surah Baraah.  Moreover, following the methodology of the Qur'an, it became the habit of the salaf [4]  and the khalaf[5]  to start their written works with the basmalah

          It is recommended (sunnah) and not obligatory (wajib) to start every religiously important matter with the basmalah, excluding those matters that the rules of the Religion prescribed begin with other than the basmalah.  Examples of religiously important matters which do not start with the basmalah are the prayer, which starts with the takbir [6], and the supplication, which starts with the hamdalah [7].

          One is forbidden to start prohibited matters with the basmalah.  For example, it is sinful for one to say bismillah just as one starts to drink alcohol, a prohibited matter.  Moreover, some Hanafiyy scholars said if one starts drinking alcohol with saying bismillah, one blasphemes.  However, the correct judgment in this matter depends upon the persons intention in his saying.  If ones intention in saying the basmalah when drinking alcohol was to seek blessings, one blasphemes.  However, if ones intention was to seek protection from the harm of the alcohol one is drinking, one is sinful for that, but does not blaspheme.  On the other hand, starting any disliked (makruh) matter with the basmalah is judged as makruh.[8] 

          The preposition (al-jar) and its object (al-majrur) in the word bismi ()  [ba () and ism () respectively] of the basmalah indicate either a verb such as abda () which means I start or a noun such as ibtida'i () which means my starting.  So bismillah ( ) means I start with the name of Allah or my starting is with the name of Allah.

          The word Allah () is the Name of the Creator whose non-existence is impossible to be perceived in the mind.  Allah is the One and Only Deserving of all praises.  The name Allah () is not derived from another root word. 

 

2.  { } 

          Al-hamd () is the verbal praising by the tongue for the optional endowments bestowed upon one.  In saying al-hamdulillah ( ) one is praising Allah praises that befit Him for the endowments and generosities He chose to bestow upon us without Him being obligated to do so.  Rabbil-^alamin ( ) means the 'Lord i.e., the Owner of the Worlds.'  The singular form of al-^alamin () is al‑^alam () and al‑^alam is everything other than Allah.  The world was called ^alam () because it is an indicator (^alamah, ), that is, the existence of this world indicates and proves Allah exists. 

 

3.  { }              

          Ar-Rahman )) is among the names exclusive for Allah.  It is not permissible to name other than Allah, ar-Rahman.  Ar-Rahman means, 'Allahs mercy accommodates the believer as well as the blasphemer in this world, and He is the One Who will be merciful to only the believers in the Hereafter.'  In confirming this meaning, Allah said in Surah al-A^raf, 156

{ }.

         Ar-Rahim () is the One Who is merciful to the believers.  In confirming this meaning, Allah said in Surah al-Ahzab, 43:

{ }.

            Ar-Rahman and ar-Rahim are both derived from the root word rahima ().  According to the rules of forming derivations in Arabic, an additional letter in the structure of the word enhances its meaning.  The name ar-Rahman has an additional letter in its construction nun () not present in the name ar-Rahim, and as such has a broader meaning. 

 

4.  { }              

          Malik () means 'Allah is the Owner of all His creations and the One Who manages the creations as He wills.'  Yawmid-Din ( ) is the Day of Judgment, i.e., the Day of Reward and/or Punishment.  Indeed, Allah is the Owner of this world and the Hereafter.  Allah specified that He is the Owner of the Day of Judgment to reflect the importance of that day on which intense horrors take place.

 

5.  { }                                                                                         

            Allah is the only One Who deserves from one the extreme humbleness and ultimate submission.  He is the One to be asked for goodness and for perpetuity of guidance, because the hearts are controlled by Allah.  This ayah denotes that one seeks the special help from Allah, i.e., Allah is the One Who creates what is beneficial for His slave in his livelihood.  However, this ayah does not mean that it is forbidden to seek any kind of help from other than Allah.  This is confirmed by the hadith of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, narrated by at-Tirmidhiyy:

<< >>

This means:  <<Allah shall aid the slave as long as the slave indulges in aiding his fellow brother.>>

 

6.  { }                                                                                           

          This ayah means:  [O Allah, be generous to us by bestowing upon us the continual guidance along the Path of Islam.]

 

7.       { } 

          This ayah elucidates that the Path (as-Sirat, ) is the path of the Religion that Allah generously bestowed upon the prophets and the angels { }, and is the path of those whose share is not eternal punishment { } and the path of those who do not go astray { }.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAYING Amin () AT THE END OF RECITING THE FATIHAH

 

            The word, Amin, means O Allah, grant us what we are asking.  Saying Amin at the end of reciting the Fatihah is, by consensus, not part of the Quran.  Rather it is a recommended (sunnah) matter to do so.  Imam al-Bukhariyy and the authors of the books of Sunan narrated the hadith:

<< >>

This means:  <<If the imam says:  ghayril-maghdubi ^alayhim, waladdallin

{ }, say,  'Amin.'>>

 


SURAH AN-NABA                                                                            

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of forty (40) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

 

 

 

1.       Concerning what matter are the mushriks inquisitive and arguing?

 

(1)

 

 

2.       Regarding the Great News of Muhammad,

 

(2)

 

 

3.       And the Day of Judgment, upon which they cannot agree.

 

(3)

 

 

4.       Verily, the blasphemers shall soon know!

 

(4)

 

 

5.       Again, verily, the blasphemers shall soon know!

 

(5)

 

 

6.       Have We [Allah] not made the earth as a cradled carpet,

 

(6)

 

 

7.       And the mountains as stakes?

 

(7)

 

 

8.       And have We [Allah] not created you well-diversified,

 

(8)

 

 

9.       And made your sleep for silence and rest,

 

(9)

 

 

10.     And made the night silent and as a covering,

 

(10)

 

 

11.     And made the day useable as a means of your livelihood?

 

(11)

 

 

12.     And have We [Allah] not built over you seven firm skies,

 

(12)

 

 

13.     And have We [Allah] not created the shining sun?

 

(13)

 

 

14.     And do We [Allah] not send down from the clouds abundant water,

 

(14)

 

 

15.     That We [Allah] may produce therewith grains and plants,

 

(15)

 

 

16.     And orchards of dense growth?

 

(16)

 

 

17.     Verily, the Day of Judgment, when truth will be sorted out from vileness, is appointed as the end of the world.

 

(17)

 

 

18.     The Day that the Horn shall be sounded, heralding the Resurrection and Assembly; and you will come forth in crowds.

 

(18)

 

 

19.     And the sky shall be cracked and shall bear crevices,

 

(19)

 

 

20.     And the mountains shall be removed from their places and shall completely vanish.

 

(20)

 

 

21.     Surely Hell shall ambush the blasphemer and imprison him,

 

(21)

 

 

22.     It is the dwelling place for those who transgress in their Religion by blaspheming,

 

(22)

 

 

23.     They will dwell therein perpetually, age after age.

 

(23)

 

 

24.     Therein they shall not taste anything cool, nor any drink

 

(24)

 

 

25.     Except boiling water that burns and dense puss;

 

(25)

 

 

26.     A severe torture fitting their ill deeds.

 

(26)

 

 

27.     For that they disbelieved in the Day of Judgment and did not fear any account for their deeds,

 

(27)

 

 

28.     And they treated Our Quran as false.

 

(28)

 

 

29.     We [Allah] preserved all things, punishable and rewardable, in the Guarded Tablet.

 

(29)

 

 

30.     So taste, O blasphemers, the results of your deeds; for We [Allah] will not grant you increase in anything, except punishment.

 

(30)

 

 

31.     Verily the righteous shall win Paradise;

 

(31)

 

 

32.     Orchards enclosed with various fruit trees,

 

(32)

 

 

33.     And maidens of the same age,

 

(33)

 

 

34.     And a cup full to the brim with pure drink.

 

(34)

 

 

35.     No ill words shall they hear therein, nor untruth;

 

(35)

 

 

36.     Recompense from their Lord, a gift of ample luxuries,

 

(36)

 

 

37.     From the Owner of the Heavens and the Earth and everything between, He is ar-Rahman; hence, none is entitled to object.

 

(37)

 

 

38.     There on the Day of Judgment, Jibril and the angels will stand in ranks.  None shall speak except the one who is permitted by ar-Rahman, and he will say what is right.

 

(38)

 

 

39.     That is the Day which is sure to come.  Therefore, whosoever wills safety, let him take a straight path to be acceptable to his Lord!

 

   (39)

 

 

40.     Verily, We [Allah] have warned you of a near punishment; the Day when one will see the deeds which his hands have sent forth, and the blasphemer will say, Woe unto me!  Would that I was dust.

(40)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

1.  { }                 

          Concerning what are the mushriks‑‑those blasphemers of Makkah who associated partners with Allah--inquisitive and arguing?  It was narrated that when the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, was revealed as the Messenger of Allah, the mushriks started inquiring and arguing among themselves about the reason for his coming and about the subject of his Revelation. Hence, this ayah was revealed.  This was narrated by Ibn Jarir from the route of al-Hasan.

 

2.  { }             

          They were arguing about the great news of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, and the Message he brought; the news of the glorious Quran, the Resurrection, and the Day of Judgment.

 

3. { }     

         They argued and inquired about the Day of Judgment in which the mushriks of Makkah disbelieved and the believers confirmed its eventual happening.

 

4.  { }                 

          [With certainty, the blasphemers shall soon know.]  The ayah starts with Kalla ().  Kalla () signifies refuting the blasphemers who deny the Resurrection and the Day of Judgment.  The matter which the mushriks shall soon know is not mentioned specifically in the ayah to accentuate their fear of it.  The answer to what the mushriks will soon know is the severe chastisement that they will face for denying the Resurrection and the Day of Judgment.  This ayah refutes the mushriks and promises them with torture from Allah.

 

5.  { }            

          Again, with certainty, the blasphemers shall shortly know the torture that awaits them for denying the Resurrection and the Day of Judgment.  The repetition of the words of the previous ayah is of a corroborative nature, and strongly emphasizes the threat of severe punishment awaiting the blasphemer. 

 

The following verses (6-16) reflect the Power of Allah to resurrect and that He is the Creator.  Allah started by mentioning what humans occupy continuously.

 

6.  { }                                                                                          

          [Have we not made the earth a cradled carpet?]  Allah created the earth for the creation similar to a babys cradle, on which to sleep.  Allah made the earth easily worked and manageable for mans use as a habitat.

 

7.  { }               

          Allah created the mountains as stakes or pegs to hold the earth in place so that it does not tilt and throw its occupants off its surface.

 

8.  { }           

          Allah created diverse creations of different colors, shapes, and languages so that the proper lessons would be learned and the favored ones would be thankful and the less-favored ones patient.

 

9.  { }       

          Allah made sleep the medium for silence and rest so that the people cease their movements that tired them during the day.

 

10. { }        

          Allah made the night a silent cover, veiling the things one does not like to reveal to others.

 

11.  { }    

          Likewise, Allah made the daytime a time for earning ones living, running ones errands, and carrying out the matters of ones livelihood.

 

12.  { } 

          Allah created seven (7), perfect, firmly-structured skies.

 

13.{ }   

          Allah created a shining sun, as Imam al-Bukhariyy narrated from the route of Ibn ^Abbas.  The sun is excessively hot and is fervidly burning.

 

14.  { }      

          Allah sends abundant water pouring down from the clouds.

 

15.  { }    

          With that water, Allah enables grains like wheat, barley, and other staple foods, as well as all the other plants (trees and grasses) to grow.

 

16.  { }               

          Likewise, with that water, Allah enables orchards with densely crowded vegetation to grow.

 

Once the blasphemers know that Allah has the power to create all these matters, would they not know that Allah has the power to recreate the creation on the Day of Judgment?

After Allah named some of the endowments which He bestowed on His slaves and from which they benefit, Allah said:

 

17.  { }                    

          [The Day of Judgment shall sort out the truth from the untruth.]  It is a day predestined by Allah to be the appointed day that reveals the duration of this world and marks its end.

 

18.  { }     

          On that day, Angel Israfil shall sound the Horn.  The reference in this ayah is to the last sound of the Horn which will mark the taking place of the Assembly.  The sounding of the Horn marks the beginning of the Resurrection.  The people shall rise in multitudes from their graves to the place of Assembly, as was narrated by Imam al-Bukhariyy from the route of Mujahid.

 

19.  { }                

          On that day the sky shall crack and have crevices. Ibn Kathir, Nafi^, Abu ^Amr, and ^Amir recited futtihat () with a double ta'^Asim, Hamzah and al-Kisa'iyy recited futihat () with a single ta'.

 

20.  { }              

          The mountains shall be removed from their places and completely destroyed.

 

21.  { }                       

          Surely Hell shall monitor the blasphemer and ambush him.  Hellfire now lies awaiting the Day of Judgment when it will inflict its torture on those who deserve it.  The blasphemer shall enter Hell and be imprisoned therein forever.  May Allah protect us from Hell.

 

22.  { }               

          Hell shall be the final destination and the everlastingly dwelling place for those who transgress in their religion by committing blasphemy.  May Allah protect us.

 

23.  { }        

          Al-Kisa'iyy recited labithina () without the alif of extension and the meaning is the same.  The blasphemers shall dwell in Hell as long as ages last--and the ages shall not come to an end.  When one age lapses, another starts, and so on the case shall be as such perpetually.  The term age huqb (), the singular form of ages ahqab () is eighty (80) years.  Al-Qushayriyy said:  The meaning is that they shall be there forever.

          Some people, such as Jahm Ibn Safwan, the head of the Jahmiyyah faction, falsely claim that Hellfire will cease to exist.  Some try to use this ayah and the meaning of the word huqb out of its proper context to justify this false claim that Hellfire will cease to exist.  There is nothing in the aforementioned ayah or in any other ayah which gives credence to their incorrect statement.  On the contrary, many ayahs talk about the perpetuity of Hellfire and the perpetuity of the torture of the blasphemers therein.  As such, the Muslim scholars have judged as blasphemers those who claim that Hellfire ceases to exist.  Among those scholars is the Hafidh and Mujtahid, Imam Taqqiyyuddin as-Subkiyy.  He stated this judgment in his treatise, Al-I^tibar Bibaqa Al-Jannah Wan-Nar, in which he refuted Ibn Taymiyahs claim that Hellfire comes to an end.

          Among the other strayings of Ibn Taymiyah is his claim that the kind of the world is eternal.  He mentioned this in more than five (5) of his books.  His creed is a blasphemous creed by the consensus of the scholars, as was mentioned by az-Zarkashiyy and Ibn Daqiq al-^Id. Other scholars also mentioned the same thing such as the  Hafidh Ibn Hajar (in his Explanation of al-Bukhariyy), and al-Qadi ^Iyyad, the Maliki scholar.  So do not be deceived by Ibn Taymiyahs attempt at embellishing his poisonous creed.

 

24.  { }            

          The blasphemers in Hell shall not taste the enjoyable cold drinks or any other drinks.

 

25.  { }        

          The term illa () in this ayah gives an exception to the saying of Allah, wala sharaba ( ) (nor any other drinks) in the previous ayah.  The meaning is that the blasphemers will only drink continually fervidly-boiling water that burns them and dense puss.  Ibn Kathir, Nafi^, Abu ^Amr, ^Amir, and Shu^bah recited ghasaqa () with a single sinHafs from the route of ^Asim, Hamzah, and Al-Kisa'iyy recited with a double sin (ghassaqa) ().

 

26.  { }                  

          This torture is commensurate with their ill deeds and their blasphemy.

 

27.  { }                 

          Imam al-Bukhariyy narrated from the route of Mujahid that this ayah means [they (the blasphemers) did not fear the Day of Judgment.]  They did not fear the Day of Judgment because they did not believe in it. 

 

28.  { }      

          They exaggerated in belying the verses of the Quran.

 

 

 

29.  { }                    

          All the punishable and rewardable deeds are recorded in the Guarded Tablet for requital by Allah.  Among the recorded deeds is the blasphemers belying of the Quran. Likewise, the angels count the sins of the sinners and record them in books.

 

30.  { }                

          Their perpetually increasing torture results from their denial of the Day of Judgment and from belying the Quran. The blasphemers are severely scolded in this verse and the severity of the punishment is clearly stated.  They will receive nothing but more torture!  Ibn Abu Hatim narrated from the route of Abu Barzah al-Aslamiyy that this ayah is the most severe of all the ayahs on the blasphemers and that it clarifies that in the Hereafter the blasphemers have no hope that their torture will lessen or stop.

 

The next ayahs (31-36) talk about the situation of the pious in the Hereafter.

 

31.  { }          

          The righteous God-fearing person is the one who fulfills the obligations and refrains from the prohibitions.  These righteous God-fearing people shall be victorious winners.  They will be lead away from Hellfire and admitted to Paradise.

 

32.  { }             

          In Paradise, the righteous ones shall have orchards filled with various fruit-bearing trees.

 

33.  { }            

          And young beautiful maidens equal in age.

 

34.  { }                

          And a cup filled to the brim with a pure drink.

 

 

 

 

35.  { }             

          In Paradise, they shall not hear any lies or vanities, and no one shall belie the other. ^Aliyy recited Kidhaba () with a single dhal. Al-Kisa'iyy recited both single and double dhal and the rest of the reciters recited double dhal.

 

36.  { }               

          Allah shall reward the God-fearing ones with many endowments and luxuries, and this is a generosity from Him.

 

37.  { }      

          Allah, Who is ar-Rahman, is the Owner of the Heavens and the Earth and all what is between them.  Hence, the occupants of the Heavens and Earth are not entitled to object to Allah regarding reward or punishment, because they are fully owned by Him.  This however, does not conflict with the intercession Allah grants to whomever He willed.  Al-Bukhariyy narrated from the route of Mujahid that la yamlikuna minhu khitaba ( ) means, none shall speak to Him unless permitted by Allah.

Nafi^, Ibn Kathir, Abu ^Amr and Al-Mufaddal recited with dammah on the ba' in rabbu ( ) and on the nun in Ar-Rahmanu (). Read as such the meaning would be, 'Allah is the Lord of Heaven and Earth.'

^Asim and Ibn ^Amir recited with a kasrah on the ba' in rabbi () and the nun in Ar-Rahmani (). Read as such Ar-Rahmani () would be an adjective to rabbi ().

Hamzah and Al-Kisa'iyy recited with a kasrah on the ba' and a dammah on the nun. Al-Farra' chose this recitation and a group of reciters concurred with him.

 

38.  { } 

          On the Day of Judgment, Jibril and the angels, who are among the highest esteemed and honored creations of Allah, shall stand silently in ranks out of glorification to their Lord. None shall intercede except those who are permitted by Allah among the believers and angels, who say what is correct.  Imam al-Bukhariyy narrated from the route of Mujahid that wa qala sawaba ( ) means he said the correct thing in this world and implemented it.  To those whose hearts are asleep in this life, the happening of the Day of Judgment is a far-fetched matter.  However, beyond doubt it will occur.  Its happening is a reality.  The believers and the blasphemers shall see a record of their deeds, whether good or evil. Proofs of their deeds will be established and presented and will either support or convict the person. 

          Abu Hurayrah and Ibn ^Umar said:  Allah resurrects the animals and the accounts among them will be settled.  Then they will be told to turn into soil, and into soil they will turn. The blasphemer shall hope the same for himself, that is, to turn into soil (like the animals).  The saying of Allah (Surah at-Takwir, 5) { } supports that the animals will be resurrected so that the accounts among them will be settled.  Pertaining to the narration of Muslim that the Messenger of Allah said:

<< >>

This means: <<The ones with rights owed to them shall receive them on the Day of Judgment, even the butted hornless lamb shall receive its right from the one with horns which butted him>>, Mujahid said:  The animals shall be resurrected and the butted one shall butt the one who butted him, and the poked one shall poke the one who poked him. 

          The aforementioned ayah and hadith contain the proof that animals do have a soul, whereas plants, although they grow and develop, do not have a soul.  Plants do not feel pain when harvested, whereas a lamb will feel pain when slaughtered.  The one who claims that animals do not have a soul has belied the Quran and the hadithAllah is wiser and knows best.

 

39.  { }                

          The Day of Judgment is confirmed and shall definitely occur at its pre-appointed time.  Let the one who wants safety in the Hereafter follow the straight path.  This ayah does not give a choice, rather it gives a promise of reward if one follows the correct path, and a threat of castigation if one chooses otherwise.

 

40.  { } 

The torture of the hereafter that Allah warned against shall soon occur. On the Day of Judgment the human being shall see his deeds, whether good or evil, affixed in his journal.               

This is a reaffirmation of the promise of reward and the threat of punishment and a warning about the torture in the Hereafter. 

 


SURAH AN-NAZI^AT                                                            

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of forty-six (46) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

 

 

 

1.       I [Allah] adjure by the angels who wrench out the souls of the blasphemers;

 

(1)

 

 

2.       I [Allah] adjure by the angels who gently slip out the souls of the believers;

 

(2)

 

 

3.       I [Allah] adjure by the angels who glide back and forth on errands, managing the horizons by the orders of Allah;

 

(3)

 

 

4.       I [Allah] adjure by the angels who race forward to Paradise with the souls of the believers;

 

(4)

 

 

5.       I [Allah] adjure by the angels who manage carrying out the commands of their Lord.

 

(5)

 

 

6.       The day the first sounding of the Horn shall quake the mountains and Earth;

 

(6)

 

 

 

7.       Followed by the second sounding of the Horn.

 

(7)

 

 

8.       The hearts of the blasphemers shall be dreadfully agitated;

 

(8)

 

 

9.       Cast down in humiliation shall be the eyes of those blasphemers.

 

(9)

 

 

10.     Mockingly they say, denouncing the Resurrection: Shall we indeed return to life in the graves?

 

(10)

 

 

11.     What!  When we shall have become rotten, decayed bones?

 

(11)

 

 

12.     They mockingly say: Our return to life would, in that case, be a losing one!

 

(12)

 

 

13.     But verily, it will be but a single sounding of the Horn,

 

(13)

 

 

14.     When they will be brought out to the surface of the earth.

 

(14)

 

 

15.     [O Muhammad] has the story of Musa reached you?

 

(15)

 

 

16.     Behold, his Lord did call to him in the purely blessed Valley of Tuw a:

 

(16)

 

 

 

17.     [O Musa] go you to Pharaoh, for he has indeed transgressed by committing blasphemy,

 

(17)

 

 

 

18.     And say to him, Wont you accept my call to Islam and purify you from sin?

 

(18)

 

 

 

19.     And that I guide you to worship your Lord so that you may fear Him?

 

(19)

 

 

 

20.     Then Musa showed Pharaoh the great miracles

 

(20)

 

 

 

21.     But Pharaoh belied Musa and disobeyed Allah;

 

(21)

 

 

 

22.     Further, he turned his back on the correct belief, and strived hard in corruption, and against Musa.

 

(22)

 

 

 

23.     Then he gathered his sorcerers and soldiers and made a loud proclamation,

 

(23)

 

 

 

24.     Saying, I am your Lord, most high.

 

(24)

 

 

 

25.     But Allah did punish him for his first statement and his last one; and Allah made an example of him.

 

(25)

 

 

 

26.     Verily in this is a lesson for whosoever fears Allah.

 

(26)

 

 

 

27.     What!  Are you the more difficult to create, or the sky above?  Allah has constructed it,

 

(27)

 

 

 

28.     He raised the sky high over earth and every one of the seven skies over the other--perfectly constructed, smooth, and without defect.

 

(28)

 

 

 

29.     Its night He endows with darkness, and its Duha (morning sun) He brings out with light.

 

(29)

 

 

 

30.     And the earth has He created before the sky, and made it suitable for habitation;

 

(30)

 

 

 

31.     He drew out from it its water and its pasture;

 

(31)

 

 

 

32.     And the mountains He has firmly fixed;

 

(32)

 

 

 

33.     A provision for you and your livestock.

 

(33)

 

 

 

34.     Therefore, when the great event of the Day of Judgment comes,

 

(34)

 

 

 

35.     The Day when man shall remember all his deeds that he had forgotten,

 

(35)

 

 

 

36.     And Hellfire shall be placed in full view for the one who sees,

 

(36)

 

 

 

37.     Then, for the one who had transgressed by disobedience and blasphemy,

 

(37)

 

 

 

38.     And had indulged in the desires of this life, and ignored preparations for the Hereafter,

 

(38)

 

 

 

39.     The dwelling place will be Hellfire.

 

(39)

 

 

 

40.     For the one who had attended to the fear of standing before his Lord, and had restrained himself from sins and prohibitions,

 

(40)

 

 

 

41.     The abode will be Paradise.

 

(41)

 

 

 

42.     Mockingly, the blasphemers of Makkah, ask you:  O Muhammad When will be the appointed time of the Day of Judgment?

 

(42)

 

 

 

43.     For what do they ask you, when you have not been granted such knowledge?

 

(43)

 

 

 

44.     Allah alone knows the appointed time of the Day of Judgment.

 

(44)

 

 

 

45.     You are but a Warner for those who fear it, and henceforth, abstain from blasphemy and transgression.

 

(45)

 

 

 

46.     The day they see it, it will be as if they lived in this world for the duration of a single evenings dusk, or a single mornings light of the sun!

(46)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

Allah adjured by certain things in the first five (5) ayahs to confirm to us that the Day of Judgment is a true matter:

 

1.  { }           

          Allah adjures by the angels who violently wrench out the souls of the blasphemers,

 

2.  { }          

          Allah adjures by the angels who gently slip out the souls of the believers,

 

3.  { }           

          Allah adjures by the angels who glide back and forth to the horizons to run the errands of managing and carrying out the orders of Allah,

 

4.  { }              

          Allah adjures by the angels who are keen to race the souls of the believers forward to Paradise,

 

5.  { }             

          And Allah adjures by the angels who manage the rain, clouds, and plants as their Lord commanded them.

          Allah cleared the angels from the element of femininity[9] and rebuked the blasphemers who said that the angels are females in ayah 19 of Surah az-Zukhruf:

.{ }

          Hence, the previous verses are in reference to the matters carried out by the angels while clearing them from the element of femininity.  In the first five (5) ayahs, Allah adjured by the aforementioned angels.  Al-Farra said,  'The answer statement which clarifies the subject matter of  the adjuration is not mentioned, however, its innate meaning is that Allah adjures by those angels that the blasphemers shall surely be resurrected and judged.  Allah left out stating this meaning because the meaning is insinuated in the text and is easily comprehended by the listener'.

          Ash-Sha^biyy said, 'The Creator adjures by whatever He wills among His creations.  However, the created one adjures only by the Creator.  Allah adjured by some of His creations that stand out in the eyes of His creations, to make His Power known to them.  The things that Allah adjured by indicate and prove the existence of Allah.  Moreover that they are the subject matter of Allahs adjuration is a sign that they contain benefits for the slaves of Allah.  For example, Allah adjured by at-tin (the figs) and az-zaytun (the olives). This is an indication that they contain benefits for the slaves of Allah.'

          The Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in Fath Al-Bari

Ash-Shafi^iyy said, I fear that it may be sinful to adjure by other than Allah (which means that it is extremely disliked).  The Imam of al-Haramayn said, Our school confirms that adjuring by other than Allah is disliked. Others gave details on the subject.  If one believes that what he adjures by is exalted as Allah is exalted, then it is forbidden to adjure by it and indeed it is blasphemy to adjure by it.  This is the context of the hadith narrated by at-Tirmidhiyy

<< >>

This means:  <<The one who adjures by other than Allah commits blasphemy or shirk>>.  However, if one adjures by other than Allah and aggrandizes it in a befitting manner, one does not blaspheme, but his oath is invalid.

 

6.  { }       

          The term ar-rajifah () refers to the first sounding of the Horn' as mentioned by Ibn ^Abbas.  When it is sounded, the earth and the mountains will quake.

 

7.  { }

          Ar-radifah () is 'the second sounding of the Horn.'  There are forty (40) years between the first and the second sounding.  Ibn ^Abbas said:  The two (2) soundings are the two (2) screams.  The first shall make everything die by the Will of Allah.  The second shall follow to quicken everything with life by the Will of Allah

 

8.  { }        

          On that day the hearts of the blasphemers will be extremely frenzied and dreadfully agitated.

 

9.  { }           

          The eyes of the blasphemers shall be cast downward in humiliation because of the dreadfulness they observe.

 

 

10.  { }      

          Ibn ^Abbas said:  "In mocking and denying the Resurrection, the blasphemers shall say, shall we indeed return to life in the grave!?" Their tone reflects that they believe this will not happen.

          Ibn ^Amir and the people of Al-Kufah recited with two light hamzahs on 'a'inna () to reflect the interrogative context.

 

11.  { }    

          Al-Qurtubiyy said:  The blasphemers, in denying the Resurrection said, What! We shall be resurrected when we shall have become rotten decayed bones!

Hamzah and Abu Bakr from ^Asim recited nakhirah () and Al-Farra' said both recitations have the same meaning.

 

12.  { }                     

          Not believing that the Resurrection will happen, the blasphemers mockingly and denyingly said, If this return to the life happens in our graves, it shall be a losing affair for us.

 

13.  { }                                                                                           

          Ar-Rabi^ Ibn Anas said that it means, 'But verily, it will be but a single sounding of the horn (in reference to the second sounding) that signals the beginning of the Resurrection and all will be alive again.'  This ayah shows that creating the Resurrection is an easy matter for Allah.  By this, Allah countered the blasphemers denial of the Resurrection in ayah 10 by confirming how easily will be created.

 

14.  { }         

          All creations shall gather on the surface of earth, brought up--after having been dead--from the belly of the earth.  Ibn Mas^ud said:

)  (

This means, ' The earth shall change into a silver-like earth clear of any bloodshed or committed sins'.  The Hafidh Ibn Hajar said:  Al-Bayhaqiyy narrated it in Ash-Shu^ab and the chain of narrators qualify it as sahih.

 

 

 

15.  { }                        

          The meaning was stated by Al-Qurtubiyy and others.  They said it means:  'O Muhammad, you have received the story of Musa and the rebellion of Pharaoh, and how Musa was rescued and Pharaoh was destroyed.'  The underlying message is consoling the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, and putting him at ease--giving him the good tidings that he shall be saved from the harm of the mushriks, and that they shall be destroyed. 

 

16.  { }         

          Al-Hasan said Tuwa () is a valley in Palestine.  Ibn ^Abbas said:  The name of that valley is Tuwa, which means 'saved', that is, 'purified and blessed'.  Allah called to Musa in the pure and blessed Valley of TuwaIbn Kathir, Nafi^, and Abu ^Amr recited Tuwa-dhhab      ( ) and the rest recited Tuwan () with a tanwin.

 

17.  { }                

          Allah informed Musa that Pharaoh transgressed by committing blasphemy.  Pharaoh was the title of al-Walid Ibn Mus^ab, the King of Egypt.  In the Arabic language, as was mentioned by al-Jawhariyy, every arrogant, sly snob is called 'pharaoh'. The term 'pharaohnism' in Arabic refers to shrewdness and arrogance.

 

18.  { }                    

          Allah ordered Musa to say to Pharaoh:  Wont you accept my call to Islam and purify yourself from sin?  That is, 'I call on you to become Muslim, to do good deeds, to embellish yourself with merits, and to purify yourself from sins.'  Ibn Kathir and Nafi^ recited  tazzakka () with a double zay.

 

19.  { }                    

          (And for Musa to tell Pharaoh):  'I guide you to know Allah through proofs so that you may fear Him and thereby perform the obligations and refrain from the prohibitions.'  This ayah clearly denotes that believing in Allah takes precedence over other acts of obedience because Allah mentioned the guidance first.  Mentioning the fear of Allah came next, making it a consequence of being guided.

 

 

 

20.  { }       

          Prophet Musa went to Pharaoh and conveyed what his Lord had ordered him to convey, but Pharaoh demanded a proof.  So Musa performed the great miracle.  Imam al-Bukhariyy narrated in his commentaries that Mujahid said:  'The great sign was the miracle of his [Musas] staff and hand.'

 

21.  { }            

          Pharaoh belied Musa and disobeyed Allah after witnessing the miracle which proved the truthfulness of Musa.

 

22.  { }              

          Pharaoh turned his back on the correct belief, endeavored to commit much corruption, and travailed in scheming against Musa.

 

23.  { }               

          Pharaoh gathered his sorcerers and soldiers to obstruct the truth and delivered a loud speech to them.

 

24.  { }   

          Pharaoh told them, I am your Lord, the glorified.  We seek refuge with Allah from this abhorrent statement.

 

25.  { }           

          Allah punished Pharaoh and made an example out of him for his first statement:     }   } (Surah al-Qasas, 38) which means:  [I do not know any other Lord for you but me,] and for his second statement made forty years later:  { } (Surah an-Nazi^at, 24) which means:  [I am your Lord the glorified.]  Allah punished Pharaoh in this life by drowning, and he shall be severely tortured in the Hereafter in Hellfire.

 

26.  { }               

          That which happened to Pharaoh stands as a lesson for the one who fears Allah.

 

27.  { }             

          In this ayah, Allah addressed the people of Makkah (who disbelieved in the Resurrection) scolding and refuting them, telling them:  According to you, which is more difficult, recreating you after death considering that you are weak or creating the sky considering its obvious perfect and lasting expanse.  In truth, creating both matters has the same standing in relation to the Power of Allah because His Power is perfect and is not lacking.

 

28.  { }     

          Allah describes the sky as a sound structure that He created above us.  Allah made the skies very high.  A walking distance of five hundred (500) years separates the surface of the earth from the first sky, and likewise each successive sky to the next, up to the seventh sky.  Each sky has a thickness to it, which is the distance between its bottom surface and upper surface, as stipulated by the interpreter of the Quran, Abu Hayyan, in his interpretation An-Nahr al-MaddAllah created the sky smooth and level without any defects, clear of any elevations or depressions.  It is well-made and masterly built.

 

29.  { }            

          Allah made the skys night dark and brought out its morning sunlight.  Al-Qurtubiyy said:  Allah attributed the duha () time which is the light of the sun prior to noon to the sky, because it contains the reason for darkness and daylight which is sunset and sunrise.  In this ayah Allah attributed both the layl (night) and the duha (pre-noon sunshine) to the sky. The layl is a result of the sun setting and the duha is a result of the sunrise. Both of these matters are due to the sun which travels within the domain of the sky.

 

30.  { }                                                                                      

          Allah created the earth before the sky. He created seven skies.  Ibn ^Abbas said:  Allah made the earth suitable for habitation.

 

31.  { }                

          Allah drew out from the earth its water, springs, and the plants of the pastures.

 

 

32.  { }           

          Allah has firmly moored the mountains on earth to keep the earth stationary.

 

33.  { }    

          Allah created that as a benefit for you and your livestock among camels, cows, and sheep as stipulated by an-Nawawiyy when he was proof‑reading the terms of the book of At-Tanbih.

 

34.  { }                   

          Allah elucidated how He created the earths and the skies to prove He has the Power to create death and resurrection. When Allah established this and that the resurrection is intellectually permissible, Allah informed us about its happening.  Al-Mubarrad said:  At-tammah () means the unbearable one.  Ibn ^Abbas said:  At-tammah al-kubra ( ) means the Day of Judgment and Allah deemed its events as great.

 

35.  { }                 

          On that Day, one shall remember the good and bad deeds he performed during this life.  One will see what is written in ones journal. One will see the things he had forgotten all about, either because of ones extreme negligence about the matters or because they happened long time ago.

 

36.  { }                    

          Hellfire shall be placed fully visible, fervidly burning, for everyone with sight.  The believer shall be thankful to Allah for His endowments.  Ibn ^Abbas and Mu^adh recited limar-ra'a ( ) with a hamzah between the ra' and the 'alif.

 

37.  { }              

          Then, for the one who had transgressed and committed sins and blasphemy,

 

38.  { }       

          And had indulged in the desires of this life by following ones personal desires while neglecting preparing for the Hereafter,

 

39.  { }                                                                                        

          Hellfire will be his dwelling place.

 

40.  { }         

          As to the one who had attended to the fear of standing before his Lord for judgment of his deeds, and had restrained himself from the sins and the prohibitions,

 

41.  { } 

          Paradise shall be his abode.

 

42.  { }       

          Mockingly, the blasphemers of Makkah ask you Muhammad when the appointed time of the Day of Judgment will occur.

 

43.  { }     

          Why do they ask you, O Muhammad, when you have no knowledge of its time?  In this ayah Allah denounced the mushriks for asking Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, when the appointed time of the Day of Judgment is.

 

44.  { }         

          Allah alone knows the appointed time of the Day of Judgment.  No one else has such knowledge. Allah said in Surah Luqman, ayah 34:

{ }

Which means:  [Allah alone has the Knowledge of the appointed time of the Day of Judgment.]

 

45.  { }                   

          O Muhammad, those who will benefit from your warning are those who fear the Day of Judgment and therefore abstain from blasphemy and transgression.  Although Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, is a Warner for every mukallaf (accountable person), the ones who will benefit from his warnings are those who fear the Day of Judgment.  Abu Ja^far recited  mundhirun   () with tanwin.

 

 

 

46.  { }           

          Ar-Raziyy said in Mukhtar Assahah, When the blasphemers see the Day of Judgment, it will be as if they lived in this world for a single evenings dusk or a single mornings pre-noon sunshine. Also he said that ^ashiyyah () is from the time of the Maghrib prayer until Nightfall.

Muhammad Murtada Az-Zabidi said: ' duhaha () is when the sun rises. What is meant is that at these times the world seems little in the eyes of the blasphemer.'

 


SURAH ^ABASA                                                                             

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of forty-two (42) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

 

 

 

 

1.       The Prophet frowned and turned his face away,

 

(1)

 

 

2.       When the blind man came to him.

 

(2)

 

 

3.       But O Muhammad, how could you know he might, by your words, purify himself!

 

(3)

 

 

4.       Or that he might receive admonition from your preaching, and the reminder might benefit him!

 

(4)

 

 

5.       As for the one who does without  the belief and Quran because of ones wealth,

 

(5)

 

 

6.       To him do you attend!

 

(6)

 

 

7.       Although it is no blame on you if the blasphemer does not purify himself with Islam.

 

(7)

 

 

8.       But as to the one who hastened to you seeking goodness and knowledge,

 

(8)

 

 

9.       And was fearful of Allah,

 

(9)

 

 

10.     Of him you were pre-occupied!

 

(10)

 

 

11.     After this time do not do the same, for the Quran contains preaching and is enlightening to the creations.

 

(11)

 

 

12.     Therefore, whoever wills does memorize the Quran and learn from its lessons.

 

(12)

 

 

13.     Enlightenments contained in books held in great honor,

 

(13)

 

 

14.     Dignified and kept pure and holy,

 

(14)

 

 

15.     Written by the hands of the copying angels,

 

(15)

 

 

16.     Honorable, pious, just, and obedient to Allah.

 

(16)

 

 

17.     Woe to the blasphemer!  How severe is his blasphemy!!

 

(17)

 

 

18.     From what material has Allah created him that made him act arrogantly?

 

(18)

 

 

19.     From a sperm-drop  Allah has created him and then molded him in due stages;

 

(19)

 

 

20.     Then Allah made the path of his delivery smooth for him;

 

(20)

 

 

21.     Then Allah causes him to die and be buried;

 

(21)

 

 

22.     Then, when Allah wills, He will quicken him again.

 

(22)

 

 

23.     By no means has the blasphemer fulfilled the orders of Allah.

 

(23)

 

 

24.     Then, let man take lessons by looking at how Allah provided his food.

 

(24)

 

 

25.     For that Allah pours water abundantly from the clouds,

 

 

(25)

 

 

26.     And Allah makes the plants split the earth as they emerge,

 

(26)

 

 

27.     And produces therein staple grains,

 

(27)

 

 

28.     And grapes and dates,

 

(28)

 

 

29.     And olive and date trees,

 

(29)

 

 

30.     And enclosed gardens, dense with trees,

 

(30)

 

 

31.     And a diversity of fruits and forages,

 

(31)

 

 

32.     A provision for you and your livestock.

 

(32)

 

 

33.     But when the second sounding of the Horn comes, heralding the Day of Judgment,

 

(33)

 

 

34.     On that Day man shall flee from his own brother,

 

(34)

 

 

35.     And from his mother and his father,

 

(35)

 

 

36.     And from his wife and his children:

 

(36)

 

 

37.     Each one of them shall be occupied by his own concerns over the concerns of others.

 

(37)

 

 

38.     The faces of the believers on that Day shall be beaming,

 

(38)

 

 

39.     Laughing and rejoicing.

 

(39)

 

 

40.     And the faces of the blasphemers, on that Day, will be dust-stained with sadness,

 

(40)

 

 

41.     Covered with darkness.

 

(41)

 

 

42.     Such will be the blasphemers, the doers of iniquity.

(42)

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

1.  { }                  

          At-Tirmidhiyy, al-Hakim, and Ibn Hibban reported from the route of ^Aishah that she said:  This ayah was revealed about the blind man, Ibn Umm Maktum.  His name was ^Amr Ibn Qays (another saying was that it was ^Abdullah Ibn Qays). He was Lady Khadijahs maternal cousin.  Az-Zabidiyy said:  The Prophet frowned.  Al-Bukhariyy said:  The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, turned his honorable face away.

 

2.  { }            

          Ubay Ibn Ka^b, al-Hasan and Abu ^Imran recited 'an ja'ahu ( ) with one extended hamzah with a fathah.  Ibn Mas^ud recited 'a'an () with two non-extended hamzahs with fathahs.

          Al-Qastalaniyy (in his explanation of al-Bukhariyy) and others said that the ayah refers to the blind man, ^Abdullah Ibn Umm Maktum, who came to the Prophet when several prominent figures from Quraysh were present with the Prophet.  They were ^Utbah and Shaybah, the sons of Rabi^ah, Abu Jahl ^Amr the son of Hisham, and Ubayy and Umayyah, the sons of KhalafIbn Umm Maktum said, 'O Messenger of Allah, teach me from that which Allah taught you'.  He repeatedly requested that of the Prophet without knowing that the Prophet was occupied calling those leaders of Quraysh to Islam.  The Prophet was very keen in calling those people to Islam because he was hopeful if they embraced Islam, their tribes would follow their lead.  This information was mentioned by al-Qurtubiyy.  The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, disliked that he was interrupted, so he frowned and turned his honorable face away from Ibn Umm Maktum.  The Prophet was mildly reproved for that.

          Mentioning he was blind highlights his excuse for interrupting the Prophet and points out the gentleness and attendance due to him.  Ath-Thawriyy said:  After this incident, the Prophet used to invite Ibn Umm Maktum to sit next to him on his carpet and tell him, 

<< >>

This means:  <<I welcome the one because of whom Allah mildly reproved me; and would ask him if he needs anything.>> The Prophet appointed him twice to lead the people in prayers in al-Madinah when the Prophet was occupied in two of his battles.  Ibn Umm Maktum used to call the adhan along with Bilal and others, may Allah raise their ranks. 

 

3.  { }   

          O Muhammad, what makes you know his situation!?  He could have purified himself from the sins by what he hears from you.  Al-Baydawiyy said:  This ayah insinuates that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, did not pay immediate attention to Ibn Umm Maktum, so that he may purify the others who were in his session from their sins.

 

4.  { } 

          Or Ibn Umm Maktum might have received admonition from your preaching and the reminder might have benefited him.

 

5.  { }              

          Some said that the wealthy people were meant by this ayahAr-Raziyy said that this interpretation is invalid in this context, because the Prophet did not pay special attention to them because they were wealthy.  Rather, the meaning pertains to those who do not acknowledge the belief and the Quran because of their wealth.  Ata mentioned this as well.  The ayah refers to those people whom the Prophet was occupied inviting to Islam--when the blind man interrupted him.  Those same people were killed in battles later on and died as blasphemers while fighting the Muslims.  ^Utbah and Shaybah, the sons of Rabi^ah, Abu Jahl ^Amr the son of Hisham, and Umayyah the son of Khalaf were killed during the Battle of BadrUbayy, the son of Khalaf, was killed in the Battle of Uhud by a dart the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, threw at him.

 

6.  { }

          O Muhammad, you attend to the blasphemer and turn your face toward him. Scholars of recitation recited tassadda (Nafi^ and Ibn Kathir), tasada (^Asim, Abu ^Amr, Ibn ^Amir, Al-Kisa'iyy), tatasadda ('Ubayy Ibn Ka^b and Abu Al-Jawza'), and tusda (Ibn Mas^ud and Al-Jahdariyy).

 

7.  { }

          As degradation to the blasphemers Allah tells the Prophet 'You are not blamed if the blasphemer whom you invite to Islam does not purify himself by embracing Islam.  The guidance is created by Allah and you are only to convey.'  After the revelation of this ayah, the order of Allah to fight the blasphemers was revealed.

 

8.  { }    

          Whereas the one who rushed to you--in reference to Ibn Umm Maktum--seeking goodness and knowledge for the sake of Allah,

 

9.  { }                   

          Who is fearful of Allah,

 

 

10.  { }            

          From him you were pre-occupied.  Scholars of recitation recited tatalahha (Ibn Mas^ud, Abu Al-Jawza' , Talhah Ibn Masraf) and tulha ('Ubay Ibn Ka^b, Al-Jahdariyy, Ibn as-Samayfi^)

 

11.  { }             

          O Muhammad, do not do the same incident after that one.  However, what the Prophet did was neither an enormous sin nor a small sin.  Those who said it was a small sin were wrong. ( ) means, ' the ayas of the Qur'an contain preachments and enlightenment for the creation.'

 

12.  { }            

          Therefore, the one who wills will remember to memorize the Quran and consequently, will learn from the lessons contained therein.

 

13.  { }      

          This reminder (the preachments contained therein) is affixed in honorable books.  Ar-Raziyy and an-Nasafiyy said:  They are honorable books copied from the Guarded Tablet.  It was also said that these are the books revealed to the prophets as in the saying of Allah in Surah al-A^la 18, 19

{ )(18) (19)}

It was also mentioned that what is meant by the honorable books is the Guarded Tablet.

 

14.  { }          

          These books are of sublime status and are kept pure and holy. They are touched only by the purified creatures--the angels.

 

15.  { }                 

          Ibn ^Abbas and others said:  These pure and honored books are in the hands of the honorable angels who copy.

 

16.  { }                   

          These angels are honorable, pious, just, and always obedient to Allah.

 

 

 

17.  { }  

          Ibn Al-Mundhir related from the route of ^Ikrimah that he said: ' this ayah was revealed about ^Utbah Ibn Abu Lahab when he said { } which means, ' I disbelief in the Lord who created the star.' This ayah means, ' damned is the blasphemer; how severe is his blasphemy!!' The linguistic form of the term qutila () in Allahs saying appears to be a form of supplication; however, Allah is clear of supplicating.  Thus, the intended meaning is the severe dispraise of the blasphemy of the blasphemers.  Likewise, the linguistic form of the term ma akfarah ( ) in Allahs saying appears to reflect wonder; however, Allah is clear from wondering.  The intended meaning of the ayah is to make everyone appalled by the severity of the blasphemy of the blasphemer.  Hence, the meaning therein is:  It is duly rightful to say about the blasphemer He is damned for his blasphemy is utterly severe.  Damned here means he is deprived and ostracized from any goodness.  Wonder is an emotion that occurs when one is ignorant of or is in awe of a certain thing.  Some wise men said:  Wonder is the thing whose cause is ambiguous.  This is why scholars, like al-Raghib al-Asbahaniyy, said it is non-befitting to attribute wondering to Allah because Allah is the One Who knows all the unforeseen and nothing is hidden from His Knowledge. 

 

18.  { }       

          The ayah brings to light that the blasphemer has no reason to act arrogantly.  Did he not see what he was created from?  It is an interrogatory format to establish that he was created from a very insignificant thing.

 

19.  { }   

          The Messenger of Allah said in part of his hadith narrated by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim from the route of Ibn Mas^ud:

<< ߡ ߡ .>>

which means:  <<The creation of one of you starts as a nutfah () a sperm-drop, for forty (40) days in his mothers womb, then as an a ^alaqah () (a thick coagulated blood clot, for the same duration, and then as a mudghah () (looks in size like a bite of meat, for the same duration of time. The angel is then sent by Allah to blow the soul into him and is ordered to write four (4) matters: the persons sustenance, his deeds, his death time, and whether he is among the People of Paradise or the People of Hellfire.  Al-Fayyumiyy mentioned that the nutfah is the sperm drop from which man is created, the ^alaqah  is a stage of the sperm drop developed into a thick coagulated blood clot, and the mudghah is a stage when it turns into a bite's sized -like piece of meat.

          The meaning of the ayah is that arrogance and tyranny are not suitable for the one whose origin is a nutfah and then ^alaqah and then mudghahAllah molded the person in due stages until he was completely created.  Allah molded his hands, his feet, his eyes, and the rest of his body parts--beautiful or ugly, tall or short--and foreordained him whether he is among the dwellers of Paradise or Hellfire. 

 

20.  { }            

          Allah created the cervix as the outer end of the womb to facilitate the exit path of the human being.  When the time of his delivery comes near, Allah inspires the fetus to turn his body around so that his head is down after it was towards the upper part of his mothers abdomen.  Praise be to Allah, the Creator of the human being and his form.

It was said by Al-Hasan and Mujahid hat the ayah means, 'Allah facilitated for him the knowledge of the routes of goodness and of evil.'

 

21.  { }             

          Allah causes him to die and be buried in a grave instead of lying on the surface of the earth to be eaten by scavengers and beasts.

 

22.  { }         

          Then after his death, Allah quickens and resurrects him.  Allah is the only One Who knows the appointed time of the Resurrection.

 

23.  { } 

          The term kalla () in the ayah denotes severe scolding and reprimanding of the blasphemer for his blasphemy, for he did not obey Allahs orders to believe in Him and be obedient to Him.

 

24.  { }                  

          Let man be pensive about how Allah created food for him and how that food enters and exits his body. This is an invitation for the heart to think about the greatness of the Power of Allah.

 

25.  { }    

^Asim, Hamzah and Al-Kisa'iyy recited 'anna whether continuing after or stopping at the recitation of the previous verse.         

Ibn Kathir, Nafi^, Abu ^Amr and Ibn ^Amir recited 'inna. Azzajjaj said reciting 'inna is in the context of commencing and continuing the recitation, and reciting 'anna is in the context of an exchangeable term for food (). The ayah means, ' Allah makes the rain pour down abundantly from the clouds.'

 

26.  { }                                                                                            

          And causes the plants to emerge splitting the earth apart as they surface.

 

27.  { }            

          Allah creates all the staple grains on Earth such as wheat and barley.

 

28.  { }              

          Also Allah creates grapes and dates.  Ibn ^Abbas said the al-qadba () are the dates because the branches that bear them are cut off the date trees.

 

29.  { }           

          [Allah creates] olives and date trees.

 

30.  { }                

          Likewise Allah creates many walled-in orchards dense with lofty trees, as mentioned by Azzajjaj.

 

31.  { }                 

          And Allah creates fruits of different kinds and forages for the animals as was mentioned by Ibn ^Abbas. It was said the ayah refers to the moist fruits.

 

32.  { )     

          The aforementioned ayahs (27-31) state things Allah created for the benefit of mankind and his livestock, among which are the camels, cows, and sheep.

 

33.  { }     

          It is in reference to the second sounding of the Horn on the Day of Judgment. Al-Khalil Ibn Ahmad said:  as-Sakhkhah () is a scream that deafens the ears from its heavy impact.  As-Samin said:  It is an intermitted scream that ruptures the hearts of those who hear it.  Abu Hayyan and others said in further explanation of the ayah:  On that Day every person shall be totally occupied with his own situation.

 

 

 

34.  { }                                                                                        

          On that Day--a result of its intensity--the human being shall not pay heed to any of his relatives.  Not to his brother,

 

35.  { }                   

          Not his mother or father,

 

36.  { }           

          Not his wife or children.

 

37.  { }        

          Each one among them shall be too occupied with his own situation to pay heed to others.  Abu ^Abd Ar-Rahman As-Sulamiyy, Az-Zuhriyy, Abu Al-^Aliyah, Ibn As-Sumayfi^ and Ibn Muhaysin recited ya^nih.

 

38.  { }     

          The faces of the upright, righteous people shall be illuminated on the Day of Judgment because they know of the goodness and luxury that awaits them. 

 

39.  { }       

          Their faces shall be delightful and gleaming with happiness due to the generosity that Allah endowed upon them.

 

40.  { }                                                                                     

          As to the faces of the blasphemers, they shall be dusty and ridden with sadness.

 

41.  { }                                                                                                         

          And their faces shall be covered with darkness.  Ubayy Ibn Ka^b said about Surat al-Haqqah, 14: { } that the mountains and earth shall demolish into dust that covers the faces of the blasphemers but not the faces of the believers.  Ayahs 40 and 41 of Surat ^Abasa support this meaning.  Al-Hakim narrated Ubayy Ibn Ka^bs saying and classified it as sahih.  Adh-Dhahabiyy concurred with him.

 

42.  { }                                                                                        

          Those are the faces of the blasphemers and doers of iniquity.

 


SURAH AT-TAKWIR                                                                  

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of twenty-nine (29) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

 

 

 

1.       When the sun loses its spacious light and darkens out;

 

(1)

 

 

2.       When the stars scatter and fall, losing their glitter;

 

(2)

 

 

3.       When the mountains are wrenched out and leveled;

 

(3)

 

 

4.       When the she-camels, ten months pregnant, are left untended;

 

(4)

 

 

5.       When the beasts are herded together for requital;

 

(5)

 

 

6.       When the oceans completely dry out;

 

(6)

 

 

7.       When the souls are paired together, each with its alike;

 

(7)

 

 

8.       When the female infant who was buried alive, is asked,

 

(8)

 

 

9.       For what sin was she murdered;

 

(9)

 

 

10.     When the journals recording deeds of men, good or bad, are spread open;

 

(10)

 

 

11.     When the sky is vigorously scraped;

 

(11)

 

 

12.     When the fire of Hell is fueled to a blazing fervid heat;

 

 

(12)

 

 

13.     When Paradise is brought nearer;

 

(13)

 

 

14.     Then, shall each soul know what it has brought forward in its journal.

 

(14)

 

 

15.     Verily, I swear by the receding stars,

 

(15)

 

 

16.     The planets that set and hide,

 

(16)

 

 

17.     And the night as it falls and disappears,

 

(17)

 

 

18.     And the dawn as it breathes out its light;

 

(18)

 

 

19.     Verily, this Quran is the Word of Allah brought down by Archangel Jibril, a most honorable messenger,

 

(19)

 

 

20.     Supported with extreme power to carry out what Allah ordered him without any weakness or powerlessness,

 

(20)

 

 

21.     Obeyed by the angels of the sky and entrusted with the Revelation.

 

(21)

 

 

22.     And, O people of Makkah, contrary to your claim, Muhammad is not insane.

 

(22)

 

 

23.     And surely Muhammad saw Jibril in the clear eastern horizon.

 

(23)

 

 

24.     And surely Muhammad does not withhold any of the Revelation.

 

(24)

 

 

25.     The Quran, contrary to your claim, is not the word of an accursed Satan.

 

(25)

 

 

26.  So, where else would you go, but the Book of Allah?

 

 

(26)

 

 

27.     Verily, this Quran is a preaching to all the creations;

 

(27)

 

 

28.     With benefit to whoever among you wills to go the straight path of becoming Muslim;

 

(28)

 

 

29.     But you shall not have a will except as Allah, the Owner of the Worlds, wills.

 

(29)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

            Al-Hakim narrated from the route of Ibn ^Umar that the Messenger of Allah said:

<< >>

This means:  <<The one who desires to envision the Day of Judgment let him read Surah at-Takwir.>>            Al-Hakim established the hadith as Sahih with which adh-Dhahabiyy concurred and Ahmad reported the hadith.

 

1.  { }

Ibn ^Abbas said it means:  When the sun loses its light and becomes dark. The scholars of interpretation said the sun will be gathered and wrapped and thrown into Hellfire.

 

2.  { }      

            When the stars scatter and drop and lose their light;

 

3.  { }        

            When the mountains are wrenched out from the earth and leveled as earth was first created without mountains or valleys.

 

4.  { }        

            ^Ishar () is the plural of ^ushara () which is the she-camel ten (10) months pregnant.  She is called ^ushara until she delivers so long as her pregnancy does not exceed twelve (12) months.  Such a camel is very precious to her owners, yet they have to leave her untended, without a shepherd and without one milking her, because they are overwhelmed by other matters.   This similitude alludes to the Day of Judgment when no one pays any heed to what he used to have.^Uttilat () means, ' left out and neglected due to being occupied by the dire events of the day of judgment.'

 

5.  { }   

            This refers to when the beasts are gathered after Resurrection.  Ibn ^Abbas said:  The beasts will be gathered on that day to take their due from one another, after which they will turn into soil.  Although the beasts are not accountable for their deeds, still this happens to elucidate the Justice of the Creator.  This ayah also carries an explicit proof that animals have souls. 

 

6.  { }       

            Imam Al-Bukhariyy commented in his Sahih that al-Hasan said the ayah means:  The water of the oceans will be gone, without any drop left.  ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib and Ibn ^Abbas said sujjirat () means will be lit in a blaze, as reported by al-QurtubiyyIbn Kathir and Abu ^Amr recited sujirat () with a single jim.

 

7.  { }      

            Imam al-Bukhariyy narrated in his commentaries that ^Umar Ibn al-Khattab used to say about the meaning of this ayah: " the man among the people of Paradise will be wed to his equal, and the man among the people of Hellfire will be wed to his equal.  Then he recited the saying of Allah: (As-Saffat, 22)

{ }

This ayah  means: [Assemble those who committed iniquities along with their spouses]"

                                                                                                                                        

Hafidh Ibn Hajar said:  "This narration has a continuous Sahih chain of narration.

 Al-Hakim narrated a similar meaning from the route of ^Umar Ibn al-Khattab that he explained the meaning as:  They are the two men doing the deeds that make them enter Paradise and Hellfire, the sinner with the sinner and the pious with the pious.  Al-Hakim classified it as sahih and adh-Dhahabiyy agreed.

 

 

 

8.  { }      

            This ayah refers to the abhorrent practice of some during the Era of Ignorance of burying the female infants born to them while they were still alive.  The man preferred to kill his own female infant out of fear that she might be disgraced if captured in a raid or sold into slavery, or out of fear of poverty.  The honorable people at the time refrained from such a practice and stopped others from doing it.  Sa^sa^ah, the grandfather of al-Farazdaq, used to buy the female infants from their fathers.  He had rescued seventy (70) of them by the time Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, renewed the call of al-Islam.

            The significance of her being asked is to severely reprimand the doer of such an abhorrent deed.

 

9.  { }               

            This is a narrative of the statement with which she would be addressed.  Her reply would be, I was murdered for no reason.  By this, the abhorrence of the act stands out and the murderers would be clearly exposed.  ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib, Ibn Mas^ud, Ibn ^Abbas, Abu ^Abd Ar-Rahman, Ibn Ya^mar, Ibn Abi ^Ablah and Harun from Abi ^Amr recited sa'altu

() with a fathah on the sin and an 'alif after it and recited bi'ayyi dhambin qutiltu

( ) with a silent lam and a dammah on the ta'.

 

10.  { }   

            Al-Qurtubiyy and al-Mawardiyy said the meaning is:  The journals in which the angels record the good and bad deeds of those concerned will be folded by death, and then laid open again on the Day of Judgment.  Then every person will stand at his journal and learn what is written in it and would say (as Allah told us in Surah al-Kahf, 49:

{ }

This means:  [This book, wondrously, does not skip counting neither a small nor an enormous matter]  Nafi^, ^Asim, Abu Ja^far, Ibn ^Amir and Ya^qub recited nushirat () with a single shin. The rest of the scholars of recitation recited with nushshirat () with a double shin.

 

11.  { }     

            Az-Zajjaj said it means:  When the sky will be wrenched out as in wrenching out the roof of a house.  Al-kasht () is the wrenching out of something in firm adhesion to another thing. ^Abdullah recited qushitat ().

 

 

 

12.  { }     

            At such time when the blazing fire of Hell is fervidly fueled.  As-sa^ir () is the blazing and fervor of the fire.  At-Tirmidhiyy and Ibn Majah narrated from the route of Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: 

<< ʡ ʡ . >>

This means:  <<The fire of the Hell was fueled for one thousand (1,000) years until it became red in color, then one-thousand (1,000) years until it became white in color, then one-thousand (1,000) years until it became black in color.  Hence, it is dark and pitch-black in color.>>  Nafi^, Ibn Dhakwan, Hafs from ^Asim recited su^^irat () with a double ^ayn, others recited su^irat () with a single ^ayn.Shu^bah recited both ways.

 

13.  { }         

            The reference here is to when Paradise will be brought closer.  Az-Zajjaj said:  The interpretation of that is when the time of their entry into and looking at Paradise becomes near.  Al-Hasan said:  They will be brought close to Paradise while it remains in its place.

 

The forthcoming ayahs are the reply statements to the first ayah { } and the ayahs joined to it by conjunction [10].

 

14.  { }                                                                                      

            The term nafs (self,  ) is indefinite thereby reflecting a general context.  The ayah means that every soul shall know the good deeds it brought in its journal that would admit it to Paradise or the bad deeds that would make it deserving of Hellfire, may Allah protect us.

 

15.  { }         

            An-Nasafiyy and others said la () is a linguistic additive meaning:  Verily, I swear by al-khunnas ().  Al-Khunnas () is the plural of khanisah () and khanasa ^anhu ( ) means 'to be delayed or receded from.'  Al-Hafidh said:  Al-Bukhariyy said al-khunnas () is 'to recede and conceal itself in its habitat like when the gazelles recede into their caves.'  

            Al-Farra said that the ayah is in reference to the five stars that run their course by receding in their tracks just as the gazelles recede back in their caves.  He said what is meant by the five stars is: 

'Mercury (), Venus (), Mars ) ), Jupiter (), Saturn      ().'           

            Then al-Farra said:  "Sa^id Ibn Mansur narrated from ^Aliyy with a hasan classification that they are the planets appearing at night and receding unseen at daylight."  In his book   'Lisan Al-^Arab' he said:  "Khunusuha () is the receding at daylight and al-khunus () is to recede and conceal."

 

16.  { }              

            Al-kunnas () is the plural of kanis () and kanisah ().  Kanis (), if attributed to a beast, means the beast entering its habitat--like the wild cows and the gazelles.  Al-jawariyy () are the moving planets and al-kunnas () are those planets that set and hide. Hence, the ayah refers to the moving planets that set and hide.

 

17.  { }        

            Al-Khalil said: Allah adjured by the setting in of the night and by its disappearance.  The term ^as^as () is antonymic (); such terms contain in the same word opposite meanings (like appearing and disappearing).

 

18.  { }        

            As-subh () is dawn, the beginning of daylight.  Idha tanaffas ( ) i.e., if it's light spreads out.  This ayah contains an adjuration;  Allah adjures by the Dawn and its spread-out light.  The reply statement that shows the subject matter of the adjuration is the following ayah (#19).

 

 

 

 

 

19.  { }  

            The revealed Quran, highly praised to Allah, is the utterance[11] of an honorable angel and messenger to Allah, Jibril, who came down with the revelation on all the prophets, peace be upon them

 

20.  { }             

            Jibril is extremely empowered to carry out his assignments without weakness or powerlessness.  His strength enabled him to wrench out the villages of the people of Prophet Lut (Lot) and turn them upside down, as he was ordered.  Jibril has a very high status to Allah.

 

21.  { }              

            This ayah means Jibril is obeyed by the other angels in the skies and is entrusted with bringing the Revelation down to the prophets of Allah.  The saying of Allah, thamma (), refers to the skies.  Ibn Hisham said thamma () with a fathah is a name reflecting the far away place.  Jibril is amin ()[12] i.e., he is entrusted with bringing the Revelation down to the prophets of AllahUbayy Ibn Ka^b and Ibn Mas^ud recited thumma () with a dammah on the tha'

 

22.  { }

            This is a conjunction to the reply statement of the adjuration in ayah 19.  It means:  O People of Makkah, unlike the lies the blasphemers fabricate, Muhammad is not insane. Rather, he is truthful and may Allah reward him greatly for what he gave his nation. Majnun ()[13] is the one subdued by Jinn or the one who suffered an ailment in his brains that veils his mind.

 

23.  { }

            This ayah refers to that Muhammad saw Jibril in his original form having six hundred (600) wings. He saw him in the far horizon ( ) from where the sun rises.

 

24.  { }                 

            Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, is not a miser in conveying what was revealed to him.  Ibn Kathir, Abu ^Amr, and al-Kisaiyy read the term bidanin () with the letter dha' () instead of dad ().  Read as such, it means Muhammad is neither accused of bringing forward something which was not revealed to him, nor of short-conveying any of what was revealed to him, nor of adding to what was conveyed to him.  Al-Bukhariyy said adh-dhanin () means the accused and ad-danin () means the miser.  Likewise it was narrated by ^Abdur-Razzaq from the route of Ibrahim an-Nakh^iyy.

 

25.  { }                                                                                  

            Contrary to the false claim of the blasphemers of Quraysh, the Quran is not the word of one of the devils--pelted away with meteors--uttering through the tongue of Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.  Some of the devils eavesdrop near the first sky whereupon the angels pelt them away with meteors.  Rajim () means marjum () i.e., pelted with meteors.

 

26.  { }                

            What other route would you follow but the Quran which provides the guidance and soundness?  This ayah shows that the blasphemers strayed by their fabrications about the Prophet.  One time they attributed to him insanity, another time soothsaying, and other than that.  The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, is clear of their accusations. 

 

27.  { }                                                                                         

            An-Nasafiyy said it means the Quran is truly a preachment for the creation.

 

 

28.  { }                      

            The Quran is a preachment for those who willed to follow the Straight Path by embracing Islam and they will indeed benefit from it.  As for those who do not embrace Islam, they do not benefit from the Quran.

 

Then in the following ayah, Allah elucidated that the slaves will of embracing Islam, and thus being on the straight path, is only by the Will of Allah.

 

29.  { }      

            You shall not will for yourselves to be on the Straight Path by embracing Islam unless Allah willed that for you eternally.  Allah made it known that their being guided to the good ending is only by and in accordance with the Will of Allah.  In the ayah, Allah mentioned specifically ones will to follow the Straight Pathand not ones will to go astray to elucidate the honor of the belief.

            Al-Qurtubiyy said: Allah showed in this ayah that the good the slave does is by the Will of Allah in order to benefit him, and the evil the slave commits is by the Will of Allah in order to deprive him.  Allah said in Surah al-An^am, 111:

{ }

This ayah means:  [Even if Allah sends the angels to them and the dead speak to them and Allah assemble everything in front of their own eyes, they still would not believe unless Allah willed for them to believe.  And Allah said in Surah Yunus, 100:

{ }

This ayah  means:  [No soul can believe except by the Will of Allah.]  Allah said in Surah al-Qasas, 56:

{ }

This ayah  means:  [O Muhammad, you will not be able to guide whomever you love, but Allah guides whomever He wills.]  There are many other verses and religious reports showing that Allah guides one by Islam and misguides one by blasphemy. (End of Qurtubiyy's saying.)

            Allah is rubbul-^alamin ( ) i.e., the Owner of all the creatures and their deeds.  By precedence He is the Creator of their deeds.  Allah said in  Surah as-Saffat, 96:

{ }

This ayah  means:  [Allah has created you and your doings.]

            The Messenger of Allah said:

<< >>

This means:  <<Indeed, Allah has created every doer and his doing.>>  Narrated by al-Bayhaqiyy, al-Hakim, and Ibn HibbanAllah said in Surah al-An^am, 110:

{ }

This ayah  means:  [We (Allah) shall change their hearts and turn their sights.] 

            The fact that Allah controls and changes the hearts of the slaves clearly indicates that Allah is the Creator of the actions of the hearts. Likewise, the fact that Allah controls and turns the sights of the slaves clearly indicates that Allah is the Creator of the doings of the extremities and other external body organs. 

            Praise be to Allah, the One Who guides whomever He willed out of His generosity and makes misguided whomever He willed out of His justice.  Hence, the one who attributes the ultimate will to the slaves and not to the Creator, who is the Owner of the slaves, is undoubtedly a misguided blasphemer. 

            Muslim narrated that the blasphemers came to debate with the Messenger about the Destining of Allah, so Allah revealed in Surah al-Qamar, ayahs 47, 48, and 49:

{ (47) (48) (49)}

These ayahs mean:  [The blasphemers are in a state of misguidance and madness (47).  On the Day of Judgment they will be dragged through the fire of Hell on their faces and will be told to taste the touch of Hell (48).  Verily, We (Allah) have created all things in accordance with (Allahs) Decree (49).]

            Those who say the slave creates his own actions are blasphemers by the evidence of the Quran, the Sunnah, and the unanimous agreement of the salaf and khalaf.  The sayings of those who oppose them do not have any consideration due to the following confirmed saying of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, narrated by Abu Dawud:

<< >>

This means:  <<Those who deny the Destining of Allah are the Majus of this nation.>>

            Al-Lalakaiyy and al-Bayhaqiyy narrated about many of the scholars of the salaf that they pronounced those who deny the Destining of Allah as blasphemers.  Among such scholars were the companions, ^Abdullah Ibn ^Abbas and ^Abdullah Ibn ^Umar, as well as a number of the followers of the Companions and their followers.  The two great imams, Imam Malik and Imam ash-Shafi^iyy explicitly stated that this is a case of blasphemy.  Henceforth, it is not permissible to doubt in the blasphemy of the one who says the slave creates his own actions, for, may Allah protect us, they are belying the saying of Allah in Surah ar-Ra^d, 16   { }and Surah as-Saffat, 96:   { }Surah ar-Ra^d, 16 means:  [Say, Allah is the Creator of all things.]  Surah as-Saffat, 96 means:  [Verily, Allah created you and your doings.]

            Ibn Jarir and others reported that when{ } was revealed Abu Jahl said, 'we are meant by this ayah, if we willed to, we follow the Straight Path, and if we willed not to, we do not follow it.' So Allah revealed { }.

Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, Abu Al-Mutawakkil and Abu ^Imran recited wa ma yasha'un ( ) with a ya'.


SURAH AL-INFITAR                                                               

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of nineteen (19) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

 

 

 

1.       When the sky is cleft asunder;

 

(1)

 

 

2.       When the stars fall off their positions;

 

(2)

 

 

3.       When the oceans are flooded;

 

(3)

 

 

4.       When the graves are turned inside out and upside down;

 

(4)

 

 

5.       Then shall every soul learn what obedience it has sent forward and what right of Allah it has kept back.

 

(5)

 

 

6.       O blasphemer man!  What has seduced and cheated you to turn away from your generous Lord?

 

(6)

 

 

7.       The One Who created you--fashioned you proportionately and harmoniously;

 

(7)

 

 

8.       Your Lord has created you in the form conforming to His Eternal Will.

 

(8)

 

 

9.       No!  But you indeed deny the Day of Judgment!

 

(9)

 

 

10.     Appointed over you are angels who document your doings and sayings,

 

(10)

 

 

11.     Generously honorable angels that write down your deeds.

 

(11)

 

 

12.     They know all your doings, evil or good.

(12)

 

 

13.     As for the meritorious they are in a bliss.

 

(13)

 

 

14.     And the doers of iniquities (blasphemers) shall be in the fire of Hell,

 

(14)

 

 

15.     Which they will enter and suffer on the Day of Judgment,

 

(15)

 

 

16.     And from there they will not be able to leave.

 

(16)

 

 

17.     O what will explain to you the extent of the Day of Judgment?

 

(17)

 

 

18.     Again, what will explain to you the extent of the Day of Judgment?

 

(18)

 

 

19.     The Day when no soul shall be able to do aught for another. For the entire matter, that day, will be with Allah.

 

(19)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXPLANATION

 

1.  { }        

            Al-Farra said:  The infitar () of the sky is its clefting asunder.  This refers to the Day when the sky will split apart with crevices.

 

2.  { }

            And when the stars drop off from their positions.

 

3.  { }        

            Ar-Rabi^ Ibn Khathim said fujjirat () means flooded.  Al-Bukhariyy narrated this and commented by saying:  The Hafidh said in his book Al-Fath:  What is copied from the sayings of ar-Rabi^ is that fujirat () with a single () befits this aforementioned interpretation.  The meaning then is 'and when the oceans are flooded.

 

4.  { }        

            On the Day when the graves shall be agitated, turned inside out and upside down, split open and the dead shall be resurrected and quickened.

 

5.  { }

            This ayah is the reply statement for the previous four ayahs. It predicates, when the aforementioned matters happen, every soul shall learn about the obedience it had performed and sent forward, and about the right of Allah one had not fulfilled and thus kept one behind deserving the punishment of Allah.  This meaning was mentioned by Ibn ^Abbas.

 

6.  { }      

            What is meant by al-insan () here specifically is the blasphemer human being. It was said it was revealed about 'Ubayy Ibn Khalaf.  The ayah addresses the blasphemers by asking,  "What has seduced you, i.e., drawn you away and cheated you to the extent that you have blasphemed and disbelieved in your generous Lord Who bestowed upon you a variety of endowments?"  Seduction here refers to the matters that seduce man such as money, prestige, desires, and devils.  Al-Baydawiyy said "The answer to the question, What has seduced you? is the devil." 

            Al-Karim () is one of the names of Allah meaning He is the Forgiving One Who does not punish the sinner shortly after he errs.  Allah mentioned His name, Al-Karim, here to emphasize to the blasphemer the importance of refraining from being seduced away from Allah, before the punishment eventually befalls him.  That Allah is Al-Karim does not mean the blasphemer will be forgiven or will be treated as an equal to the obedient person.  Rather, if he does not repent from his blasphemy, he will be severely punished.  This becomes especially clear when one remembers the attributes of Allah of al-Qahr (), 'subjugating His slaves', and al-Intiqam (), 'justly punishing those who deserve to be punished.'  One must not listen should the devil whisper to him, Do as you like, for your Lord is Karim and does not punish anyone. 

           

            Muhammad Ibn Sabih Ibn as-Sammak, the ascetic role model, said in his poetry:

                

                    

This means: O you who is concealing the sin, are you not ashamed?  For Allah sees you even when you are alone. You have blurred yourself, by the fact that Allah allowed you some time so you may repent before punishing you, as well as by the fact that Allah has not uncovered the long history of your sins.

            Dhun-Nun al-Misriyy said:  "Many of those are unknowingly seduced because Allah has not uncovered their sins."  May Allah forgive us and cover our sins in this life and in the Hereafter, Amin. 

 

7.  { }                      

            Your Lord is the One Who destined that you be created from a sperm-drop.  He made your body parts harmonious, without any disproportion.  He made them sound, enabling them to perform their functions.  Thus, He did not make one hand longer than the other, one eye wider than the other, or some body parts black and others white.

            Al-Bukhariyy said:  Al-A^mash and ^Asim recited fa^adalak ()[14] with a single  dal ().  However, the people of al-Hijaz recited it with a doubled dal ().  The first recitation means Allah created you in conformity with the form He eternally Willed--whether beautiful, ugly, tall, or short.  The second recitation means harmoniously created. 

            It is mentioned in Al-Fath: "The summary of both recitations is that the one with the doubled dal () means harmoniously created, and the one with the single dal ()[15] means created you with whatever attribute He willed for you."

 

8.  { }                 

            Your Lord is the One Who created you with some attributes among the various attributes, in conformity to His eternal Will.  The qualities a person has whether tall or short, male or female, resembling his kin or not, was willed for him by Allah in eternity.

 

9.  { }    

            After Allah elucidated--by the intellectual proofs--the truthfulness of the Resurrection and Assembly, Allah stated some ramifications.  Kalla  ( )in this verse severely reprimands the blasphemers for being seduced by the devil away from the generosity of Allah.  The part of the ayah ( ) confirms that the blasphemers deny the Day of Judgment and claim it will not take place.  Abu Ja^far recited bal yukadhdhibuna ( ) with a ya'.

 

 

10.  { }    

            Then Allah informed the blasphemers that the record of their deeds is kept.  Among the angels are those who record their doings and sayings.

 

11.  { }               

            These angels are greatly honored to Allah.  They record the doings of the slaves.  Moreover, what goes on in peoples hearts Allah makes known to them. The angels record accordingly, so that the people may also be judged for what is in their hearts.  Aggrandizing the angels in this verse signifies the importance of the Day of Judgment.

 

12.  { }       

            Nothing of your doings, whether good or evil, will be concealed from these angels and they will record it all.

 

13.  { }     

            Al-birr () with a kasrah is 'the goodness and merit.'  Al-abrar () is the plural of al-barr () who is 'the doer of goodness and merit.'  Ar-Raghib-al-Asbahaniyy said:  When al-birr () is attributed to the slave towards his Lord, it refers to the slaves exaggeration in being obedient to his Lord.  When attributed to Allah, it means bestowing reward on the slave.  Al-birr () is of two kinds, one pertains to the creed and the other to the acts of worship. Both are elucidated in the saying of Allah in Surah al-Baqarah, Ayah 177:

{ }

This ayah means:  [It is not meritorious that you turn your faces--without being believers--towards East or West; but it is meritorious to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your money that you love, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the slaves to pay for their freedom; to be steadfast in prayer, and to pay Az-Zakat; to fulfill the contracts which you have made; and to be patient, in financial and physical adversities, and throughout warring periods. Such are the people of truth, the God-fearing ones.]

            This ayah includes matters pertaining to the belief, obligatory actions, and supererogatory acts of worship.  For the true believers who are God-fearing in this life, the enjoyment is through obedience to Allah, and accepting the Destining of Allah, and feeling content by it.  Their enjoyment in the Hereafter shall be Paradise.

 

14.  { }

            Al-fujjar () is the plural of fajir () and the infinitive form is al-fujur ().  Ar-Raghib al-Asbahani defined al-fujur as clefting the cover of the Religion. The blasphemers are the ones meant here.  The punishment for their ill-doings shall be dwelling in the fervor of Hellfire.

 

15.  { }      

            On the Day of Judgment (the day of reward and/or punishment for ones deeds), the blasphemers shall enter Hell and suffer from its fervor.

 

16.  { }    

            Once they enter Hell, they (the blasphemers) will never depart from it.  By that, the promise and threat of punishing the blasphemers with everlasting torture in Hellfire will be fulfilled.

 

17.  { }                                         

            Ar-Raziyy said:  The scholars hold different opinions regarding the addressee.  Some said the blasphemer is the one addressed in this ayah, in order to severely reprimand him.  The majority, including al-Baydawiyy, said the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, is the one addressed to reflect that no one--including the Prophet--knows the extent of Hellfire, and to make the people more in awe of the Day of Judgment.

 

18.  { }                                       

            The words of ayah 17 were repeated again in this ayah to enhance in our minds the seriousness and importance of the Judgment Day.

 

19.  { }             

            On that day, no creature shall be able to benefit another in the least with the exception of the intercession that takes place by the Will of Allah.  No blasphemous soul will be able to benefit any other blasphemous soul.  The entire matter will be with Allah on that day and no one can contend.  In this ayah there is an indication that Allah is attributed with Existence and Everlastingness.  His attributes are eternal and everlasting by virtue of the Eternity and the Everlastingness of Allahs Self[16]Allah is clear of change because changing from one state to another is an attribute of the creations.  Allah is clear from any of the creations attributes. Dhun-Nun al Misriyy said:  Whatever you imagine in your mind, Allah is different from It. i.e., Allah is not similar to it.

Ibn Kathir and Abu ^Amr recited yawmu () with a dammah on the mim[17]. The rest recited it with a fathah on the mim[18].

 


SURAH AL-MUTAFFIFIN                                                  

Makkiyyan by consensus.

Comprised of thirty-six (36) ayahs.

 

Meaning

Ayah

 

 

 

 

1.       Woe to those stinting when weighing or measuring out goods.

 

(1)

 

 

2.       Those who, when they receive by measure from people, are keen to receive full measure,

 

(2)

 

 

3.       But when they give by measure or weight to people, give less than what is due.

 

(3)

 

 

4.       Do they not think they will be resurrected,

 

(4)

 

 

5.       On a day of great importance?

 

(5)

 

 

6.       The Day of Judgment when all mankind shall rise to be judged by the Lord of the Worlds?

 

(6)

 

 

7.       Nay, surely the book of the blasphemers is incarcerated in Sijjin.

 

(7)

 

 

8.       And what makes you know what Sijjin is?

 

(8)

 

 

9.       The book of the blasphemers is fully inscribed.

 

(9)

 

 

10.     Severe punishment that Day to those who deny,

 

(10)

 

 

11.     Those who deny the Day of Judgment.

 

(11)

 

 

12.     And none deny it except every transgressor beyond bounds, the blasphemer!

 

(12)

 

 

13.     When our ayahs are recited to him, he says, Tales of the Ancients!

 

(13)

 

 

14.     Nay, but their hearts are rusted with the sins they do!

 

(14)

 

 

15.     Verily, that Day, they shall be veiled from seeing their Lord.

 

(15)

 

 

16.     Thereafter, they [the blasphemers] will enter the Fire of Hell.

 

(16)

 

 

17.     Further, the angels will tell the blasphemers, This is the torture you denied!

 

(17)

 

 

18.     Nay, verily the Book of the meritorious is in ^Illiyyin (Paradise).

 

(18)

 

 

19.     And what makes you know what ^Illiyyin is?

 

(19)

 

 

20.     The Book of the Meritorious is fully inscribed,

 

(20)

 

 

21.     To which bear witness the elite angels from every sky.

 

(21)

 

 

22.     Truly the meritorious will be in a bliss,

 

(22)

 

 

23.     On raised couches looking at what Allah bestowed upon them.

 

(23)

 

 

24.    You will recognize in their faces the glistening of bliss,

 

(24)

 

 

25.  From the purest sealed non-intoxicating wine they shall drink,

 

 

(25)

 

 

26.     Sealed with musk, and for this let the aspirants aspire,

 

(26)

 

 

27.     Mixed with it a drink from Tasnim:

 

(27)

 

 

28.     A spring in Paradise, from which shall drink the best and the meritorious.

 

(28)

 

 

29.     Those who blasphemed used to laugh at those who believed,

 

(29)

 

 

30.     And whenever they passed them by, they winked at one another in mockery;

 

(30)

 

 

31.     And when they returned to their families, they returned in a jest;

 

(31)

 

 

32.     And whenever they saw the believers, they would say, These are the people truly astray!

 

(32)

 

 

33.     But, they had not been sent as record keepers of the believers deeds!

 

(33)

 

 

34.     Indeed, on this Day the believers will reciprocate and laugh at the blasphemers,

 

(34)

 

 

35.     They will be raised on couches in Paradise watching the blasphemers in castigation.

 

(35)

 

 

36.     By rewarding the believers on this Day of Judgment, will have not the blasphemers been paid back for their mockery of the believers?

 

(36)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
THE EXPLANATION

 

            Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in his book Al-FathIbn Majah and an-Nasaiyy reported in a sahih chain from the route of Ibn ^Abbas that he said when the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, came to Madinah, its people were most devious in measurements.  Allah revealed waylul-lilmutaffifin ( ) and thereafter they became good with their measurements.

 

1.  { }    

Ar-Raghib al-Asbahani mentioned in his book Al-Mufradat: "Al-Asma^i noted that wayl () is 'repugnance.'  As to those who said wayl () is a valley in Hell, they did not mean the terms actual linguistic definition was 'a valley in Hell.'   Rather, the intended meaning was whomever Allah threatened by al-wayl () deserves a place in Hellfire and will indeed experience it."  At-Tirmidhiyy reported the hadith:

>> <<

This means:  << Al-wayl () is a valley in Hell in which the blasphemer shall fall forty (40) years before he reaches its bottom.>At-Tirmidhiyy said: " this hadith is gharib[19] and I recognize it as marfu^[20] only from the route of Ibn Lahi^ah."  Ibn Lahi^ah was an extremely weak narrator even before his books got burnt, as ^Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Mahdiyy and Yahya Ibn Ma^in reported.  The linguists said al-mutaffif () is derived from at-tafif () meaning what is little.  Hence, al-mutaffif () is the one who cheats others out of their due in measuring and weighing.  Al-mutaffifun () is the plural of al-mutaffif ().  Therefore, the ayah means: Those who cheat others out of their due in measuring and weighing deserve punishment in Hellfire, and they shall experience it.

 

2.  { }    

            They are the ones who make sure to receive from people the full measure due to them. 

 

3.  { }          

            Among their attributes is that when they give by measure or weight to people, they give less than what is due.

 

4.  { }                 

The meaning is that as if they do not know with certainty that they shall be resurrected and judged for this ill-practice.  An-Nasafiyy said:  The interrogative hamzah () was added to the lam alif (), an article of absolute negation, as a reprimand.  The ayah entails severe denouncing and amazement at their daringness to short-change others. The interpreters said adhdhann () in the ayah means, ' knowledge and certainty.'

 

5.  { }                     

They shall be resurrected on a day of grand importance--the Day of Judgment.

 

6.  { }                

            On the Day of Judgment the people shall rise from their graves at the command of Allah and face what they deserve of reward and/or punishment. We ask Allah out of His generosity and mercy to forgive us and to conceal our ill doingsAl-Bukhariyy narrated in his Sahih from the route of ^Abdullah Ibn ^Umar that the Prophet said: 

<< (6) >>

<< On that Day (mentioned in ayah 6) the people shall rise for judgment until one is covered in his own sweat up to the middle of his ears.>>  That is., he will drown in a pool, mid-ear high, of his own sweat.

 

7.  { }             

              The word kalla () reflects a strong order to refrain from stinting in weighing and measuring under the threat of punishment.  It was also said to mean Verily.  The book of the doers of iniquities, i.e., the journals in which their deeds are recorded, shall be in Sijjin. Az-Zabidiyy, in his book Taj Al-^Arus, said:  "Sijjin contains the book of the doers of iniquities.  Ibn ^Abbas reported Sijjin contains their journals as reported in as-SahahAbu ^Ubaydah said Sijjin has the grammatical structure of fi^^il () and its root is Sijn () or the prison.  Similar to that is Fissiq (), the root of which is Fisq ().  It was said Sijjin is a valley in Hell, may Allah protect usAl-Baydawiyy certified that Sijjin is Hell itself.  Ibn al-Athir said: 'Sijjin is a name for the Fire of Hell.'  Ar-Raghib al-Asbahaniyy said Sijjin is a name for Hell which corresponds to that ^Illiyyin is a name for Paradise.

 

8.  { }      

            This ayah intensifies the matter of Sijjin to accentuate the feeling of fear from it.

 

9.  { }

            It means a 'written book', and it was said that it means a 'sealed book'.  An-Nasafiyy said:  The book is a comprehensive book--a record of evil; in it the deeds of the devils and blasphemers among the jinns and humans are written.  As mentioned before, this book is imprisoned in Sijjin which is an indication of the low status of the blasphemers, the meanness of their deeds, and Allahs degradation of them.  Ar-Raziyy said: 

            Allah told us that the book (of the doers of iniquities) is in Sijjin and then explained Sijjin by being a written book.  It is as if it was said their book is in a written book; so what does that mean?  Imam Abu Bakr ash-Shashiyy al-Qaffal al-Kabir answered:  The saying of Allah

{ } is not an explanation of Sijjin.  Rather, the inherent meaning is:  Nay, verily the book of the doers of iniquities is in Sijjin and it is a written book.  Hence, this attributes two attributes to the book of the doers of iniquities--that it is in Sijjin and that it is written. The saying of Allah in ayah (8) ( ) came in-between the two attributes and Allah knows best.

 

10.  { }     

            Those who belie shall face severe punishment.

 

11.  { }                                        

            That is those who deny the Day of Judgment.

 

12.  { }             

            Only those who exceed the bounds are the ones who deny the Day of Judgment--those who are athim (), that is, extremely sinful for their blasphemy.  Athim () is a form which expresses an exaggeration in meaning.

 

 

13.  { }               

            The one who denies the Judgment Day whenever the ayahs of Allah are recited to him says, These are only but tall-tales of the earlier people. Azzajjaj said asatir () means, ' fabrications.'

 

14.  { }             

            Nay, these are not false tales of the earlier people.  Al-Bukhariyy said that Mujahid said that ran () is the affixation of sins.  Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in his book Al-Fath

It was narrated to us in Fawaid ad-Dibajiyy that Mujahid said with regards to the saying of Allah: { } the sins have been affixed on their hearts until they became totally submerged.

Ran () and ar-rayn () mean film, and it is similar to the rust on cast things.  Ibn Hibban, al-Hakim, at-Tirmidhiyy, and an-Nasaiyy narrated from the route of al-Qa^qa^ Ibn Hakim from Abu Salih from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said:

<< ʡ :  >>

This means:  <<If the slave commits a sin his heart is soared.  If he quits and seeks forgiveness the sore is cured; however, if he recommits sins, the sore will be increased until the heart is scarred and this is the ran () that Allah mentioned in His saying kalla bal rana ^ala qulubihim ( ). (This is the end of the words of the Hafidh)

 

            Hafidh Ibn Hajar (with a chain of narration) mentioned that Mujahid said:  They (the scholars) used to explain ar-rayn () by stamping.  The saying of Allah ma kanu yaksibun { } means [as a result of their disobedience and sins].  The interpreters of the Quran said when their disobedience and sins increased, it overwhelmed their hearts.  ^Abdur-Razzaq narrated in his Tafsir from the route of al-Hasan that he said:  It is the sin committed on top of another until the heart is scarred, and consequently, becomes black.  Al-Mundhiriyy said:  It was narrated from the route of Anas that the Messenger of Allah said:  

<< >>

<<The hearts get rusted like the rust of copper and are cleansed by seeking forgiveness.>> (Narrated by al-Bayhaqiyy)

            In the recitation of Hafs from ^Asim one slightly stops without releasing a breath at the lam () (while wanting to continue) and then he recites ran ().  Nafi^, Ibn Kathir, Abu ^Amr and Ibn ^Amir continue the recitation without stopping and recite with the idgham[21] of the lam () and ra' ().  However, Abu Bakr, Hamzah and Al-Kisa'iyy recited with the imalah[22] of the fathah[23] on the ra' () and with idgham.

 

15.  { }   

            Here, kalla () contains the meaning of the strict order to refrain from the sins and disobedience that cause the heart to blacken with scars. Innahum () refers to the blasphemers. ^An-rabbihim  ( ) means from seeing their Lord as mentioned by the astute scholar, ^Izz ad-Din Ibn ^Abd as-Salam, in his book Al-Isharah Ila al-'IjazYawma idhin () means on the Day of Judgment.  Lamahjubun () means they are indeed prohibited.  An-Nasafiyy said alhajb ( ) is the prohibition.

            The meaning of this ayah, hence, is that on the Day of Judgment, the blasphemers shall indeed be prohibited from seeing their Lord.  This ayah degrades the blasphemers and makes it clear that Allah does not accept them.

            Al-Bayhaqiyy narrated with his chain of narration to Imam Muhammad Ibn Idris ash-Shafi^iyy that he said about this ayah { }: ' The fact that Allah prohibited them from seeing Him, as a sign that they are not accepted by Him, indicates that those who are accepted by Allah shall see Him.'  These words are extremely beautiful because it is an analogy derived from the meaning of the ayah and is supported by the evidence of the saying of Allah in Surah al-Qiyamah, Ayahs 22 and 23:

{ (22) (23)}

These ayas mean:  [On the Day of Judgment the beautiful faces of the believersthose accepted by Allahshall be looking at their Lord.]  Also al-Bayhaqiyy in his Siyar reported his chain of narration up to Sufyan Ibn ^Uyaynah that he said about the ayah

{ }:

'If both the righteous and the blasphemers had been veiled from seeing Allah, then what merit would the righteous have over the blasphemers?'  It was reported in the same book (Siyar) that a person asked Imam Malik Ibn Anas, 

      O Abu ^Abdullah, do the ayahs { (22) (23)} (Surah al-Qiyamah) mean that the believers will look at Allah

      He said, Yes, with these eyes. 

      I said, Some people say nadhirah () in ayah 23 means awaiting the reward from Allah

      Imam Malik replied, No, it means seeing Allah.  Have you not heard what Musa said as mentioned in Surah al-^Araf, 143 { }?  (This means:  [O Allah, allow me to see you.].  Do you think he would have asked Allah for an impossible matter?  Allah said { }which means [You will not see Me,] i.e., in this world which is going to annihilate, however, once they get to the abode of perpetuity they shall look with their everlasting eyes at Allah Who is Everlasting. Allah said :{ (15)} Al-Mutaffifin."

The scholars who lived within three hundred years after the immigration of the Prophet (salaf) and those who lived after them (khalaf) have held mutual consent on the belief of seeing Allah, the Exalted, with the eyes in the Hereafter. And that it is exclusive for the believers who shall see Him while they are in Paradise. They will see Him without a manner of being, without likening Him to the creation, and without a direction.  Imam Abu Hanifah an-Nu^man Ibn Thabit, may Allah raises his rank, in his books Al-Wasiyyah and Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar said:

( )

This means: (The people of Paradise shall truly see Allah without a manner of being, resemblance or direction. The believers shall see Him while they are in Paradise with their eyes without a distance between Him and them. The proximity to and farthness from Allah DO NOT pertain to the length or shortness of distance, rather, it is a meaning pertaining to highness and lowness of status. The obedient person is close to Allah without a manner of being, and the sinful person is far from Allah without a manner of being. Likewise seeing Allah in the hereafter is without a manner of being.)

Abu Hanifahs statement elucidates that Allah will not be in a direction or a place, whereas the people of Paradise will be in their locations in Paradise.  They will see Him without doubting that it is He whom they have seen, just as the person looking at the full moon on a clear night does not doubt that what he sees is the moon.  This meaning was reflected in the saying of the Messenger of Allah that was narrated by al-Bukhariyy:

<< >>

which means:  <<You shall see your Lord on the Day of Judgment without any doubt, just as you do not doubt seeing the full moon on a clear night.  Yet you shall not throng and cling together to see Him>>.

            Al-Bayhaqiyy said he heard Imam Abu at-Tayyib Sahl Ibn Muhammad as-Su^lukiyy say in his book Al-Imla about the saying of the Prophet:  << >> (with a dammah on the ta () and shaddah[24] on the mim () of ) ) that it means you shall not throng and cling together.  The meaning is also the same when using a fathah on the ta ().  In such case, the root word would be tatadammun ().  However, if one uses a dammah on the ta () and a single mim (), the root of the word would be ad-daym  () which means you shall not face any injustice in that some will see Him and some will not.  Rather all of you (the believers) shall see Him while you are in your direction and He is clear of directions.  The similitude with seeing the full moon is not to liken the Creator to the moon, for Allah is clear from that.  (End of the words of Abu at-Tayyib).

            The reason the Messenger of Allah drew a similitude between the believers seeing the full moon on a clear night and their seeing Allah in the Hereafter was to eliminate the element of doubt.

            In one of the narrations of the hadith by al-Bukhariyy, the term la tudarun ( ) was pronounced with a single ra' (), and in Muslims narration, the term la tudarrun ( ) was pronounced with doubling the ra' ().  The author of Lisan Al-^Arab reported that Abu Mansur said that the root of the first is ad-dayr () and the second is ad-durr ();  and both mean the same thing--without you hurting one another attempting to see Allah alone, i.e., all to yourself without the others.  It was said also the meaning is without disputing and ending up belying one another about seeing Allah.

            The importance of this rather lengthy explanation is to present the reader with ample refutation to the Qadariyyah--those who deny the Qadar (Destining of Allah).  The Prophet described them as the majus of this nation.  The Qadariyyah deny that the believers will see Allah on the Day of Judgment. 

            In his Tafsir, Az-Zamakhshariyy, who belongs to the misguided school of the Mu^tazilah, displayed impoliteness with the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, (in addition to other abhorrent matters).  The renowned, great Imam, Abu Hayyan al-Andalusiyy, (in his famous Tafsir, Al-Bahr Al-Muhit, in the Chapter on Surah An-Naml) warned against az-Zamakhshariyys Tafsir.  In verses of his poetry, highlighting straying of az-Zamakhshariyy, Abu Hayyan said that az-Zamakhshariyy: (1) out of ignorance confirms fabricated hadiths, (2) attributes to the impeccable Prophet that which is non befitting, and (3) twists the terms around to support the ill-school of the Mu^tazilahAbu Hayyan meant that az-Zamakhshariyy was one of the Mu^tazilah and a proud, outspoken advocate of that school.  Strangely enough, some people who consider themselves Sunni use az-Zamakhshariyys Tafsir while ignoring the warning of Abu Hayyan.

 

16. { }   

            After they will have been veiled from seeing their Lord they shall enter the burning heat and fervor of Hellfire.

 

17.  { }         

            The angels in charge of the Fire of Hell shall tell the blasphemers, This is the torture that you have denied in this world. 

 

18.  { }          

            Al-Fakhr ar-Raziyy said:  After Allah, the Exalted, mentioned the state of the doers of iniquities who short weigh and measure, Allah mentioned the state of the meritorious that do not short weigh and measure.  Kalla () means:  Nay, the case is not as the doers of iniquities deluded themselves into denying the Day of Judgment and saying about the Book of Allah it is only the false tales of the earlier people.  Then Allah, in this ayah, told us that the Book (their recorded deeds) of those good, meritorious believers is in ^IlliyyinIbn ^Abbas said ^Illiyyin is Paradise.

 

19.